Mandevil Bernard (Mandeville Bernard)( English satirist.)
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Biography Mandevil Bernard (Mandeville Bernard)
Born in 1670 in Dordrecht (Netherlands). In 1691 received his medical degree at Leiden University. Most of his life in England, where he had a medical practice. In 1705 published a poetic satire Ropschuschy beehive, . or fraudsters, . become honest (The Grumbling Hive, . or Knaves Turn'd Honest), . reprinted in 1714 in an amended form under the title The Fable of the Bees, . or Private vices - the total profits (The Fable of the Bees: or, . Private Vices, . Publick Benefits),
. In satire described hive, where bees have removed the evil, and then discovered that the evils of society itself had disappeared. While the bees have sinned, hive prospered; turned to virtue, beehive impoverished. By resorting to the traditional scale of values: self-interest is bad, virtuous self-sacrifice. Thus, arrogance, selfishness and greed are the vices, however, suggests Mandeville, on them rests the economic welfare of society. Proper balance between the needs and demands of society, and ultimately their well-being are supported better than the less it interferes in the government and charitable organizations. Mandeville anticipated the subsequent economic theory of 'laissez-faire', ie. the principle of laissez-faire. Initially essay Mandeville almost was not noticed by his contemporaries and became known only after the jury's decision in Middlesex, which condemned the publication in 1723 as representing a danger to public safety. Mandeville died in Hackney (now the city limits of London) January 21, 1733.