MANDELA, Nelson (Mandela Nelson)( President of the Republic of South Africa.)
Comments for MANDELA, Nelson (Mandela Nelson)
Biography MANDELA, Nelson (Mandela Nelson)
Born July 18, 1918, near Umtata (Eastern Cape). Eldest son of the leader of tempo-speaking Xhosa. He studied at the College of Fort-Heyer, in 1940 was expelled for participating in the boycott. Student received a place in legal offices in Johannesburg, he studied by correspondence in the South African university. He studied law at the University of Witwatersrand. In 1952, together with Oliver Tambo, leader of the ANC in exile, opened the first African law firm in Johannesburg.
Facilitated the establishment of the ANC Youth League. He was among those members of the ANC, which in late 1940 - early 1950's were in opposition to the ruling National Party. Headed the movement for nonviolent resistance to apartheid. In 1953 he was elected President of the Transvaal ANC. He was charged with treason and imprisoned in 1956 (he was acquitted in 1961).
In 1960, Mandela became the leader of the ANC. After the massacre at Sharpeville, ban the ANC and the Pan Africanist Congress, headed by Robert Sobukve formed a military organization, the ANC - Umkhonto wa sizve (Spear of the Nation). During the year he managed to avoid arrest, but in mid-1962 he was jailed for incitement to strike. In 1964, Mandela and other leaders of Umkhonto we were accused of plotting to overthrow the government.
The leader of the resistance movement was Winnie Mandela (p. 1936, nee Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela). However, in late 1988 her reputation was dealt a severe blow when several of her bodyguards abducted and beaten by four black youths, one of whom was later found dead. In 1991, Winnie was sentenced to six years' imprisonment (the sentence was postponed). The couple separated in 1992 and subsequently divorced. In 1988, Mandela married Graz Machel, the widow of Mozambican leader Samora Machel.
In February 1990 Mandela was released from prison. In mid-1990 visit to Europe, North America and Africa, called for the continuation of economic sanctions against South Africa. In 1990 participated in the discussion draft a new constitution with De Klerk. In July 1991, became president of the ANC. In December 1991, Mandela and De Klerk called a multiracial and multi-party conference to draft a new constitution. The talks ended in February 1993 the establishment of a transitional coalition government.
In July 1993, Mandela visited the U.S. together with De Klerk. In September 1993, speaking at the UN General Assembly, called for the lifting of economic sanctions against South Africa. In 1993, Mandela and De Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
At the first general election of 1994 the ANC won 63% of the vote, and Mandela was elected president of the National Assembly. In 1996, we adopted a new constitution guaranteed equal rights to all South Africans regardless of race, gender, religious beliefs or sexual orientation. Nevertheless, rising crime and economic problems caused a massive emigration of the white population in the late 1990's. Remaining as president, Mandela in December 1997 left his post as leader of the ANC, and in the 1999 elections did not put his candidacy for the presidency.