Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (Mannerheim Karl Gustav Emil)( President of Finland.)
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Biography Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (Mannerheim Karl Gustav Emil)
Born June 4, 1867 in Vilnyase near Turku. He graduated from the University of Helsingfors (1887) and Nikolayev Cavalry School in St. Petersburg. Was enrolled in the Horse Guards in 1889. He received the rank of lieutenant in 1893 and the staff-captain in 1901. Last year fighting in Manchuria, was thrice awarded military decorations and promoted to colonel. During the First World War fought in Galicia, commanded a cavalry division. In the second year of the war for the able command and bravery was promoted to Major-General. Since the beginning of the revolution in Russia returned to Finland declared independence. January 16, 1918 the Senate appointed Mannerheim, commander of the Finnish Army. After the failure of his election as King of Finland germanskogo Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse Mannerheim from December 1918 to July 1919 served as regent. July 17, 1919, Finland was proclaimed a republic. In the presidential election Mannerheim defeated. In 1931 he was appointed Chairman of the State Defense Council, since 1933 engaged in construction of reinforced concrete strip and granite-earth border fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus. In the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939 was commander of the army of Finland. The war ended in defeat for Finland and the signing of the peace treaty in Moscow March 12, 1940. Mannerheim was elected president, but shortly before the entry of Finland into the war on the side of Germany left the post and headed the armed forces. In August 1944, was re-elected president. Managed to achieve preservation of the sovereignty of Finland, concluded a separate peace with the Soviet Union in September 1944. In 1946 he resigned.
Mannerheim died in Lausanne (Switzerland) January 27, 1951.