Andrea Mantegna (Mantegna Andrea)( One of the greatest painters of the Renaissance in Northern Italy.)
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Biography Andrea Mantegna (Mantegna Andrea)
. Mantegna combined a major artistic aspirations of the Renaissance masters 15 in.: Enthusiasm for antiquity, . interest in an accurate and thorough, . down to the smallest detail, . transfer of natural phenomena, and boundless faith in linear perspective as a means of creating the illusion of space in the plane,
. His work became the main link between the early Renaissance in Florence and later flowering of art in Northern Italy.
Mantegna was born about. 1431; between 1441 and 1445 it was recorded in the workshop of painters in Padua as the adopted son of Francesco Skvarchone, a local artist and antiquarian, in a workshop where he worked until 1448. In 1449 Mantegna began creating fresco decoration of the church in Padua Eremitani. In 1454 Mantegna married Nicolosi, the daughter of the Venetian painter Jacopo Bellini, the sister of two outstanding masters of 15 in. - Gentile and Giovanni Bellini. Between 1456 and 1459 he wrote the altarpiece for the church of San Zeno in Verona. In 1460, accepting an invitation to the Marquis of Mantua, Ludovico Gonzaga, Mantegna had settled in his yard. In 1466-1467 he visited Tuscany, and Rome in 1488-1490, where, at the request of Pope Innocent VIII decorated with frescoes of his chapel. Erected in knighted, occupying a high position at court, Mantegna served the Gonzaga family until the end of life. Mantegna died Sept. 13, 1506.
May 16, 1446 Mantegna and three other artists have received an order to decorate the chapel in Padua Church Ovetari Eremitani (destroyed during the Second World War). Mantegna owns most of the work on creation of frescoes (1449-1455), and it is his artistic style dominates in the ensemble.
The scene of St. James before Herod Agrippa in the chapel Ovetari is example of the style of the early period of creativity Mantegna. All anatomical details, the folds of drapery and architectural elements rigidly and clearly traced. The surfaces of objects look elastic and dense, the air seems crystal clear. Mantegna vision and passion for ancient art manifests itself everywhere and in all. Knowledge of the rules of linear perspective, he borrowed from the masters of the Tuscan school, possibly from Donatello and other Florentine painters who worked in those years in Padua. Arc de Triomphe in the background of the fresco is reminiscent of ancient Roman monuments, and the soldiers in the foreground and the reliefs that decorate the arch, reminiscent of images of ancient coins and works of sculpture. In the scene Procession of Saint James to death the artist chooses the view from the bottom up, in accordance with the high position of the frescoes on the wall of the chapel. The figures shown in the foreground perspective, light, and architectural decoration is based strictly on the laws of perspective
. In other paintings by Mantegna that time, . such, . a picture of Agony in the Garden (London, . National Gallery), . in a rigid manner, the linear performed not only human figures, . and landscape, . where every stone and blade of grass carefully researched and detailed by the artist, . and rocks are covered with cracks and fissures,
Altarpiece of the church of San Zeno (1457-1459) in Verona is a beautiful interpretation of the famous sculpture Altar of St.. Anthony, created by Donatello for the Basilica of Sant Antonio (Santo) in Padua. Triptych by Mantegna has a frame, executed in high relief, and imitating elements of classical architecture and in the lateral parts of the illusion of space created by means of painting. The throne of the Madonna and architecture in the background are decorated with ancient motifs; in the foreground garlands of luxurious fruit.
Passion for the ancient masters of the classics again manifested itself in his painting of St. Sebastian (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum). Holy tied to the elegant Corinthian columns, which, apparently left over from the destroyed temple. Plants making it into the crevices of the stone, and fragments of antique marbles scattered at the feet of the martyr.
One of the most remarkable examples of space-illyuzionisticheskoy painting is a painting by Mantegna Camera degli PES in the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, completed in 1474. Square room murals visually transformed into a light, . Air Pavilion, . as if closed on both sides written on the walls curtains, . and with the other two sides opening image of the court of Gonzaga and scenic panorama in the background,
. Body Mantegna divided on kompartimenty and put them in a frame of rich antikizirovannogo ornament images busts of Roman emperors and scenes from classical mythology. In the upper part of a set of written round window through which the visible sky richly dressed characters looking down from the balustrade, given the strong long-term reduction. This fresco ensemble is remarkable not only as one of the first in a new European art examples of creating the illusion of space on the plane, but as a collection of very sharp and accurately interpreted by portraits (family members Gonzaga).
Series of monochrome paintings The Triumph of Caesar (1482-1492) was commissioned by Francesco Gonzaga and was intended to adorn the palace theater in Mantua, and these paintings poorly preserved and are now in the palace of Hampton Court in London. In the nine large canvases shows a long procession with a huge number of antique sculptures, armor, trophies. Her movement culminates in the ceremonial passing in front of Caesar's winner. Artworks reflect the extensive knowledge of Mantegna in the field of ancient art and classical literature. In this cycle, and in the Madonna della Vittoria (1496, Paris, Louvre), written to commemorate the military victory of Gonzaga, the art of Mantegna reached the most monumental. The forms in these voluminous, gestures are convincing and clear, the space is interpreted broadly and freely.
For studiolo (cabinet), Isabella d'Este, wife of Francesco Gonzaga, Mantegna has written two songs on mythological themes (the third was left unfinished): Parnas (1497) and Minerva, are expelled vices (1502, both in the Louvre). They marked a softening of style Mantegna associated with the new understanding of landscape.
Fresco decorations Chapel Belvedere, made by Mantegna to Pope Innocent VIII in 1488, was, unfortunately, lost in the expansion of the Vatican palace during the pontificate of Pius VI.
Despite the fact that only seven prints can be no doubt belonging to the hand of Mantegna, the impact on the development of the master of this art form is huge. His engraving of Madonna and Child shows how organic style of the artist can exist in the graphics technology, with its inherent elasticity and severity of the line, fixing the motion of the tool engraver. Other engravings attributed to Mantegna, - Battle of sea gods (London, British Museum) and Judith (Florence, Uffizi Gallery).