Mareuil Etienne Jules (Marey Etienne-Jules)( French physiologist, inventor and photographer.)
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Biography Mareuil Etienne Jules (Marey Etienne-Jules)
Born March 5, 1830 in Bone (France). He studied medicine in Paris, in 1857 received his doctorate in medicine. From 1868 headed the Department of Natural History at the College de France. He was a member of the Academy of Medicine and the French Academy of Sciences (since 1895 - President of the French Academy), for many years was president of the French Photographic Society. Known for research on the physiology of circulation and motor functions of humans and animals. Developed a graphical method for detecting physiological functions, are designed for this special devices that automatically record the movement of animals and their organs. Among them - pneumatic capsule ( 'Marey drum'), sphygmograph, cardiograph original design, chronograph, etc..
Marei first applied for registration of image motion. Widely known of his chronophotography - a series of images taken on separate photographic plates and film, which is automatically passed through the camera of his own design. In early 1880 the scientist published the pictures of birds in flight, taken with a camera gun designed them - the prototype of the movie camera. The device had a mechanism of sight and a chronometer and allowed to do 12 images with a duration espozitsy 1 / 72 seconds each. Observations Marey for change in the shape of the wing in birds, depending on the speed of flight and air resistance played an important role in studying the mechanism of flight. This research piqued his interest in aerodynamics, and in 1890 Marey built wind tunnel and took his first photographs to illustrate the phenomenon of turbulence.
Marey died in Paris on May 15, 1904.