Marius Gaius (Gaius Marius)( One of the most prominent Roman generals)
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Biography Marius Gaius (Gaius Marius)
(ca. 157-86 BC)
His long career, for which he became consul 7 times (in 107, 104-100, 86 BC), marked a turning point in Roman history. Mari was born near the town of Arpino (ca. 100 km east of Rome) in the base things (though hardly so poor, as is usually depicted) family and the first distinguished himself while serving under the command of Scipio the Younger in Spain in 133 BC. He was a military tribune, and ca. 123 BC. - Quaestor. In 119 BC. Marius was elected tribune, and against the wishes of the senators had made a law amending electoral procedures. In 115 BC. Mari was praetor, and the following year served as proconsul in the far-Spain. His marriage to Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar, Maria strengthen ties with prominent Roman families, which made up for his provincial origins and helped to further a political career. In 109 BC. he served as legate under Quintus Metella in the war against Jugurtha, who was trying to establish an independent kingdom in Africa. In the end, despite the vehement opposition senatorial aristocracy, he was elected consul in 107 BC. The National Assembly voted to, replacing Metellus, immediately appoint a chief Maria Jugurthine War. Mari successfully concluded the war in 105 BC, though, much to his chagrin, Jugurtha was captured not by himself, and one of his subordinates, Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Meanwhile, the Romans suffered several defeats of invading southern Gaul, the Germanic tribes the Cimbri and the Teutons. Again becoming consul (in 104 and again in 103 BC), Mari continued begun in 107 BC. reorganization of the army. However, . when the alleged attack of the barbarians in Italy did not take place, . its continued presence in the post of consul was called into question, . and only thanks to an alliance with the popular tribune Lucius Apuleius Saturnino Maria has yet to achieve this position and by 102 BC,
. This year once again invaded Teutoni. Mari intercepted and destroyed the Teuton hordes at wc Sekstievyh (sovr. Aix-en-Provence). Elected consul for the next year, along with Mari Quint Lutatius Catulus broke with Vercellae (possibly near sovr. Rovigo in the Po Valley) also Cimbri. Marius returned to Rome to celebrate the triumph and with the support of Saturninus again, for the sixth time, was promoted to consul. At the same time Saturninus was re-elected tribune (100 BC). Despite all the services rendered to him Saturnino, Mari no difficulty in the execution of the order to destroy the former ally, had instructed him as a consul in the Senate during the riots broke out in Rome. Saturninus was defeated in battle at the forum, thrown into prison and in spite of this promise of a fair trial Marius killed by a mob. Behavior of Mary in this situation eventually deprived him of public confidence, and for some time, he completely disappeared from the policy. Attempt to provoke unrest in the East, to secure the appointment of a new war, also ended in failure. But in the Allied war (rebellion Italic allies of Rome - Marsi, Samnites and others) Mari again needed a State. He successfully conducted a campaign 90 BC, but contrary to expectations had not received the appointment for the next year, and then distinguished his longtime rival, Sulla.
The former is Mary yearned for revenge, and, when in 88 BC. Senate appointed elected consul Sulla commanded the Roman army in the campaign against the king of Pontus Mithridates, . Mari again resorted to the tactic of 107 BC: a people's tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus, he persuaded the national assembly to appoint him to the post of commander,
. Of course, it was not only ambition: the war in Asia Minor promised enormous booty. But Sulla was not going to yield, rapidly sent troops to Rome and defeated the supporters of Mary. Mary managed to escape himself, he took refuge in Africa, and as soon as Sulla went to the East, returned to Italy, has joined forces with exiled from Rome, Lucius Cornelius Tsinnoy (consul 87 BC) seized power in Rome. Mari destroyed all those suspected in commitment of Sulla, and declared himself Consul (with Tsinnoy) for next year. Since Marius was consul for the seventh time, but his bloody reign was brief, as in the January ides (13 January) 86 BC. died.
Notes of Sulla, of course, have made contribution to the distortion of historical truth about Mary. Nevertheless, it may indeed was a cruel and insidious monster, ready to sacrifice anyone in cold blood in order to satisfy their ambitions. But Mari undoubtedly a brilliant military leader. In his military reform is most important was the fact that now serve in the military were open to all Roman citizens without limitation threshold, ie. and the landless and poor. Thus, from the peasant militia army has become a well-trained, professional army. Not having the property soldiers pinned their hopes on the spoils and rewards (especially land holdings) upon completion of service. Both could have them deliver successful and influential warlord. But he, for his part, counted on the support (political, as in the case and the military) that will have him, if need be, grateful veterans. Marius and his rival Sulla imposed a 'support', when loyal troops took them to Rome, in the arsenal of means of struggle for power.