Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)( The Roman emperor and philosopher.)
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Biography Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)
Born in Rome, in a family which took Spanish roots (and consuls, including ancestors) Anniya Vera, brother of the future emperor Antoninus Pius, and Domitius Lucilla, whose family led around Rome's largest tile manufacturing. At birth was given the name Mark Annius Wehr. From an early age enjoyed the favor of Emperor Hadrian, who personally took care of his upbringing, and was preparing to occupy the highest office in the State. In 138, Adrian, who left to live just a few months, fathered Antoninus Pius (ie. formally appointed him as his successor), . with the proviso, . that he once fathered Mark (after adoption - Mark Aelius Aurelius Ver) and Lucie Tseyoniya Commodus (130-169, . after adoption - Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus), . as the following candidates for the throne,
. In 145 Marcus Aurelius married a cousin, daughter of Antoninus Pius Faustina the Younger, who bore him at least 13 children. Approximately 146-147 he lost interest in rhetoric, and reading the teachings of Epictetus, was a convinced Stoic. The life of Marcus Aurelius in this period, up to 161, virtually nothing is known. After the death of Antoninus Pius in 161 Marcus Aurelius was proclaimed emperor, but immediately asked the Senate to grant him powers equal Lutsiyu (we know him as emperor under the name of Lucius Verus). This was the first co-principality in the Roman Empire. To strengthen the relationship between the emperors, the daughter of Marcus Aurelius Anniya Lucilla was betrothed to Lucius Verom. Almost all of the board of Marcus Aurelius, which by its nature was not inclined to war, led to a series of military conflicts. First empire threatened revolt in Britain and the Germanic tribe attacked the Chatti. When the calm in the West was impeccably renovated, the Parthians invaded Armenia and defeated two Roman armies. There went Lucius Verus, and by determination of its commanders Armenia managed to win (163-164), and Mesopotamia became dependent on Rome (165-166). However, returning from the victorious troops were put into an empire deadly disease, an epidemic which has made terrible havoc among the population. Over pestilence was followed by other disasters: famine, floods, earthquakes, 166 Germans invaded, even in northern Italy, but in 168 they managed to oust the country. In 169 Lucius Verus died, and Marcus Aurelius remained the sole ruler. In the same year the imperial treasures were sold at auction, and from 170 to 174 Marcus Aurelius was with the army on the Danube, fighting with Marcomanni and quads. In 175 Gaius Cassius Abida, a talented military leader, who had extensive powers in the East, declared himself emperor, taking advantage of rumors about the death of Marcus Aurelius. The revolt was quickly suppressed, and Cassius was killed, but it forced the emperor to leave the Danube area, satisfied with the achievements made. To the north of the Danube were created tied area, where the Romans were invited to settle the barbarian tribes, requiring them to only protect the Roman frontiers. These were the first steps in settling foreigners remote borders of the empire. Marcus Aurelius, rushed to the suppression of speech Cassius, continued his tour of the East, and in 176 celebrated in Rome, where he was 8 years old, his triumph. Probably, but then was erected a triumphal column of Marcus Aurelius (in 1589 to set the column was re-hoisted the statue of the Apostle Paul), decorated with bas-reliefs along the entire height. In 177 Marcus Aurelius made his son Commodus his co-regent. The situation on the Danube turn again demanded his presence. In 178 the Romans won this important, though not the final victory, but suddenly Marcus Aurelius died (possibly from the plague). Two days before the death of Commodus, he presented his friends and troops as the future emperor.
A very interesting character, reveals to us to belong to Marcus Aurelius diaries in the Greek language (usually published under the title Reflections, but the author himself called them to himself). There are no original ideas, inspired by the Stoic philosophy, it is interesting to record that were not intended for publication and are proof attitude outstanding man of the era. When Marcus Aurelius, Christianity remained the position of the banned religion, . and although the Emperor did not take measures to eradicate, . existing laws were sufficient, . that in different parts of the empire there were persecutions and executions were carried out Christians,
. The Emperor supported the traditional Roman religion as an important part of the state system and therefore saw in the Christians and their doctrine of a threat to the existing order. Following his own presentation on the duties of the emperor Marcus Aurelius carefully monitor the actions of the local administration, devoted much attention to law reform and tax collection. This was the last of the 'five good emperors' in Rome