Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (Masaryk Tomas Garrigue)( President of Czechoslovakia.)
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Biography Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (Masaryk Tomas Garrigue)
Born March 7, 1850 in Godin (Moravia). He graduated from high school in Brno in 1869, moved to Vienna. He studied at the Academic Gymnasium in 1872 entered the University of Vienna. While studying at the University of published articles in the Czech monthly magazine 'Education' ( 'Osveta'). He was the son of banker, teacher, lived in Italy, then in Leipzig. In 1876 received the title of Doctor of Philosophy. In 1878, introduced in the Treaty of Vienna University of suicide as a social mass phenomenon of modern civilization.
In 1882 he was appointed professor of philosophy from Charles University. In 1883-1891 Masaryk published a monthly magazine 'Athenaeum' ( 'Athenaeum'), which first outlined his program for the development of Czech culture. In 1879 in the Czech society was renewed debate about the authenticity of the two supposedly ancient Slavic poetry manuscripts, . open in 1817, . in 1886 it included Masaryk, . who believed their false and emphasized, . that reliance on such documents harms patriotic movement,
In 1890, Masaryk, prior member of the Bohemian, and then mladocheshskoy parties, organized liberal party Realist. The following year was elected to the Austrian Reichsrat, and in 1892 - in the Bohemian Landtag, spoke on education and increased autonomy of Czech Republic in the Austro-Hungary. Two years later, sold in views with the leadership of his party and resigned his office as deputy.
Published a liberal monthly magazine 'Our Time' ( 'Na doba'), wrote works on social and philosophical issues - Czech question (1895), Jan Hus (1896), Karel Havlц-д-ek (1896), Philosophical and sociological foundations of Marxism (1898).
During these years Masaryk expressed the idea of unification of the Czech nation and has been gaining popularity as a fighter for the rights of Jews. In 1899 and 1900 in the journal 'Modern' defending AL Gilsnera Jew accused of ritual murder, thanks to Masaryk's trial was resumed, and the death penalty abolished for lack of proof of a crime. In 1900, Masaryk founded a so-called. People's Party, later renamed the Progressive Party, whose program included the requirement of equality of languages, greater autonomy for the Czech Republic, the union between the Czechs and Slovaks.
Masaryk returned to Parliament in 1907. In 1908, the conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia resulted in Agramsky (Zagreb) trial, in which Masaryk was able to prove the spuriousness of the Austrian documents that gave rise to bring the Serbs to the court. As a result, the court was brought Viennese historian G. Fridyung, publish anti-Serb article. Masaryk was able to prove that Fridyung uncritically perceived documents fabricated by the Office of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Austria, Prince von Aehrenthal. Masaryk returned to Parliament in 1913 - a year of publication of his work Russia and Europe.
In August 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began to organize the movement for the liberation of Czechoslovakia. In December 1914 he left Austria-Hungary, soon followed by Benes. Together with the Slovak astronomer M. е=tefц¦nik, who lived in France, they have created in Paris, Czech (then Czechoslovak) National Council. Masaryk was the representative of the Council in London, where he solved a two-fold task: to work together to encourage different groups of Czech and Slovak immigrants and achieve recognition by the Allied Powers of the Council as an authorized representative of both peoples. The most important result of Masaryk in exile was the Pittsburgh agreement to merge the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which was signed in 1918. October 28, 1918 in Prague, the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed, on 14 November Masaryk became president of the new state.
Masaryk thrice re-elected to the presidency - in 1920, 1927 and 1934. In 1934 diplomatic relations were resumed with the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and in 1935 signed an agreement on mutual.
December 14, 1935 Masaryk resigned. Masaryk died in Lanah September 14, 1937.