Ernst MACH (Mach Ernst)( Austrian physicist.)
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Biography Ernst MACH (Mach Ernst)
Born February 18, 1838 in Turase (Austria). He graduated from the University of Vienna, in 1860 defended his doctoral dissertation. Since 1861 - Assistant Professor, University of Vienna, in 1864 - a physics professor at the University of Graz, since 1867 - a physics professor and rector of the German University in Prague, 1895-1901 - Professor of Philosophy, University of Vienna.
Mach conduct physical research in the field of mechanics, acoustics, optics. Establish the distribution of air density near the projectile flying at supersonic speeds. Investigated shocks. Showed that certain characteristics of the flow depends on the ratio of flow velocity to the speed of sound in a given environment (Mach number, M). This aerodynamic parameter becomes especially important at velocities close to the speed of sound in excess of its (M> 5), and is widely used in modern aircraft. World famous Mach brought his book Mechanics in its historical development (Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung, 1883). Rejecting the Newtonian notions of absolute space, absolute time and absolute motion, Max first tried to build the mechanics on the assumption that the motion of objects can be defined only in relation to other bodies. Mach rejected the kinetic theory and atomic theory, the reality of atoms and molecules. Max died in Haar February 19, 1916.