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Johann Friedrich Meckel (Meckel Johann Friedrich)

( German physician and biologist.)

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Biography Johann Friedrich Meckel (Meckel Johann Friedrich)
(1781-1833)
Born October 17, 1781 in Halle. He studied at the University of Gallic, continued his education in GцTttingen, Wц+rzburg and Vienna. In 1802 received his doctorate in medicine at Halle, honed their skills in Italy, France, England. In 1806 he was appointed professor of anatomy and surgery of the University of Gaul, and held that post until the end of life. Through the efforts of Meckel Halle became the scientific centers of Germany in the field of comparative anatomy. Museum of Comparative Anatomy (founded by his grandfather Meckel), supplemented by many exhibits and became the best in Germany; Meckel himself for his outstanding work became known as 'German Cuvier'.
Among the numerous works Meckel most well-known comparative study of the development of the nervous system, intestinal tube, skeletal and circulatory system of vertebrate embryos, as well as the structure of the brain of birds. In those years, enjoyed great popularity of the idea of comparing the successive stages of development of higher animals with the 'ladder of beings', ie. a number of adult forms of organisms, arranged in order of complexity of their organization. Such series built and Meckel, based on the laws formulated on the basis of its system of comparative anatomy.

The scientist believed that the animal kingdom governed by the laws of diversity and unity of the law (or law of reduction). Law manifold, . determining the development of an organism, . specifies properties, . distinguish one form from other animals, this includes not only the totality of characteristics, . by which species are formed, . Genera, . subclasses, etc., . but also the properties of individual bodies the same or different animals depending on age, . heredity and lifestyle,
. The law of unity, or reduction, considering the diversity of forms in the animal kingdom as a variation of some of the primary forms. Hence the so-called theory of parallelism, according to which modern higher animals in ontogenesis go through the stages of lower animals.

Meckel - author of System of comparative anatomy (System der vergleichenden Anatomie, 1821-1833). From 1815 to 1823 he was editor of 'German Archives physiological' ( 'Deutsches Archiv fr die Physiologie').

Meckel died in Halle on Oct. 31, 1833.


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