Philipp Melanchthon (Melanchton Philipp)( German humanist, reformer and the first evangelical theologian taxonomist Lutheranism.)
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Biography Philipp Melanchthon (Melanchton Philipp)
Born Melanchthon (real name Shvartserd, literally, 'black land', he translated into Greek), February 16, 1497 in Brettene (Pfalz). He was brought grand-nephew of the famous humanist and Hebraist Johann Reuchlin and his insistence, entered the Latin school at Pforzheim (where he studied in 1507-1508), . then the universities of Heidelberg (1509-1511) and Tц+bingen (1512-1514), . in the latter, he began his teaching career,
. Melanchthon studied the writings of Plato, Aristotle, William of Ockham. Prior acquaintance with Luther's deeply involved in scholastic theology and religious ethics.
25 August 1518 Melanchthon came to Wittenberg, where he taught with success and classical, and theological subjects, upholding evangelical truth means of Renaissance humanism. Soon he acquired the authority of one of the leaders of the Reformation. His main work of the truth of theology (Loci communes rerum theologicarum, 1521) was the first treatise on Protestant theology. From the Reichstag in Speyer (1529) and before his death he was the chief representative of the Protestant community in all the major religious disputes. In 1528 its program of elementary education and other educational initiatives secured him the glory of the founder of the Protestant public schools. He has been preparing teachers, . writing books (logically, . rhetoric, . Psychology, . ethics and physics) and contributed to the reorganization of numerous schools and universities - not accidentally stuck with him the honorary nickname praeceptor Germaniae ( 'teacher of Germany'),
. In compiled them Augsburg Confession (1530), the main Protestant Creed, Melanchthon sought to reconcile Protestants and Catholics, explaining the evangelical truth, and convinced of the need to preserve the unity of Christians. Outstanding theological work was his Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531).
Differences in views of Luther and Melanchthon were reduced to three points.
1) When Luther spoke of "justification by faith alone ', then lowered Melanchthon in this combination of the word' only 'and stressed the importance of good works as the necessary fruit of faith, though not its cause.
2) In 1527 he changed his attitude to the 'Stoic determinism' which underlies the doctrine of predestination, and the new edition of the Loci communes (1535) suggests that he generally refused to hard determinism. On the basis of moral responsibility and its understanding of Scripture, Melanchthon insisted that people should take the divine love as a free gift of God. He cites three reasons in support of joint force - the Word of God, the Holy Spirit and the human spirit. This concept is often criticized because it saw the idea that man is able to promote their own salvation (TN. synergism).
3) Melanchthon did not share Luther's doctrine of 'real presence' of Christ in the Eucharist. After 1530 he developed doctrinal concept of 'real spiritual presence'. Disputes over doctrine of the Eucharist jeopardize his friendship with Luther (1543), later he was accused of kriptokalvinizme (ie. latent Calvinism)
. In 1548 in a dispute about the 'indifferent' things ( 'Adiaphora' - in ethics, . things permissible, . but not required) Melanchthon firmly adhered to their own views and former Luther: justification by faith in the Scriptures - this is the main, . other things - allowed (for the sake of love or respect for order),
. Lutheran theologian Flatsy Illyricum, the enemy humanists, accusing him of heresy and apostasy. Died Melanchthon at Wittenberg April 19, 1560.