Herman Melville (Melville Herman)( American writer.)
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Biography Herman Melville (Melville Herman)
Born in New York on 1 August 1819. As a boy attending a New York man's high school, and later, when his father went bankrupt in 1830 and the family had to move to Albany (pc. New York) - Albany Academy. After his father died in 1832 while Melville was a bank clerk, he worked at his uncle's farm, on fur factory's older brother Gansvorta. When during the depression of 1837 and the case snapped, Melville, who studied briefly in Albany humanitarian school, a few weeks trying to work a school teacher near Pittsfield (pc. Mass.). After some confusion with a salary, he returned home to Lansingboro at Albany, and there studied at the Academy Lansingboro hydrography, assuming to get a seat on the Erie Canal. When these hopes were not realized, Melville was hired in June 1839 the team packet-boat 'St. Lawrence', who shuttled between New York and Liverpool. Returning from a voyage in October, he again worked for some time a school teacher in Grinbushe and Brunswick (pc. New York), then went to his uncle in Galen on the Mississippi. January 3, 1841 at the whaler 'Akushnet' he went from New Bedford on a long fishing voyage to the South Seas. One and a half year whaling voyage, under the authority of the captain brought a severe disappointment, . that the July 9, 1842 in the Bay Nukuhiva Melville in the Marquesas Islands, along with another young sailor, escaped from his ship and a month spent in the valley of Typee, . Living in a reputed cannibals, . then get out and on another whaler, . 'Lucy Ann', . reached Tahiti,
. There was Melville, along with other team members for some time imprisoned for mutiny on the ship. Then he contracted on the whaler 'Charles and Henry', . spent some time in Hawaii, . on the island of Maui and in Honolulu, . from August 17, 1843, . enrolling in the U.S. Navy, . the frigate 'United steyts' sailed home on Oct. 14, 1844 and landed in Boston,
Shortly after returning home, Melville undertook to describe his adventures in the South Seas. In 1846 in London and New York published a book Typee (Typee), which vividly describes how he was a prisoner lived in the valley of Typee. Melville's first work was a great success. It can be considered the founder of a genre of stories about the adventures in the South Seas, which over the next hundred years, appearing everywhere and in abundance. Continuation Typee called Omu (Omoo, 1847) also attracted the attention of the reading public, but the author was convicted of unflattering reviews of the activities of missionaries. Meanwhile, August 4, 1847, Melville married Elizabeth Shaw, daughter of Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw of Massachusetts. Unsuccessfully trying to get a public service, Melville wrote the allegorical fantasy Mardi (Mardi) and the story Redbern (Redburn) (both 1849), widely using the circumstances of his voyage to Liverpool. Following the fifth book was written by Melville, White-Jacket (White-Jacket, 1850), depicting life on a military ship, and Melville went to England to agree on its publication, and at the same time taken to relax his short trip to Europe. On his return he and his family moved to a farm near Pittsfield, hoping to lead a free life where a gentleman-farmer. It was an acquaintance with Melville Nathaniel Hawthorne, under the influence of which he wrote his most famous novel Moby Dick (Moby Dick, 1851).
Roman did not repeat the success of the first books. Outwardly, this story about the adventures of whaling, . but the chapter on the taxonomy of cetaceans, . the methods of extraction and stripping of whales, . excellent descriptions of the ocean and some of its wonderful inhabitants, . psychological profiles of particular whalers and long philosophical arguments are located around the plot gripping chase mad captain of a whale,
. Perhaps Melville initially intended to limit the adventure plot, but as the work on the manuscript of his penchant for moralizing and edifying prevailed over narration. The result was not an allegory, which he vigilantly avoided after the failure of Mardi, but nothing on a similar combination of adventure, romance and philosophy.
In Pierre (Pierre, 1852), Melville changing entourage and draws the mind is not on the ocean, but in an area in the Berkshire hills, and on New York. Then, after the publication v1855 Israel Potter (Israel Potter), he collected his short stories and sketches, published in the magazine 'Putnam' and 'Harper', and published them in a collection of stories on the veranda of (The Piazza Tales, 1856). In 1857 came fraudster (The Confidence Man) - bitter, poluallegoricheskaya satire on American mores.
In 1856-1857 Melville traveled to Europe and the Holy Land and then for three seasons on the basis of their road record lectures on sculpture, travel and the South Seas. His last sea voyage refers to 1860, when he was on the Clipper, under the command of his brother Thomas went to San Francisco. In 1863, Melville sold his farm to his brother Allan, and returned permanently to New York, where in 1866 received a place of customs inspectors, who held the next nineteen years. In 1866 came the first collection of poems by Melville's battle scenes, or the war from different perspectives (Battle Pieces and Aspects of the War). The long narrative poem about the Holy Land Klerel (Clarel) was published in 1876. Having some and leaving a legacy of service at the Customs office in December 1885, Melville spent the rest of the life of desk studies and literary work. At his own expense he published two volumes of poetry - John Marr and Other Sailors (John Marr and Other Sailors, 1888) and Timoleon (Timoleon, 1891) - and left behind a manuscript of a short novel Billy Budd, Fort sailor-man (Billy Budd, Foretopman ). Last piece of criticism these days is put on second place in the artistic heritage Melville - after Moby Dick. It tells of a young and not the innocent British sailors, hanged for the murder of an officer ill. Melville died in New York on September 28, 1891. The revival of interest in his work began shortly after the First World War.