Gregor Johann Mendel (Mendel Gregor Johann)( Austrian biologist, founder of genetics.)
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Biography Gregor Johann Mendel (Mendel Gregor Johann)
Born July 22, 1822 in Heyntsendorfe (Austro-Hungary, now Ginchitse, Czech Republic). Educated Heyntsendorfa and Lipnick, then the district high school in Troppau. In 1843 he graduated from the philosophy classes at the University of Olmutz and a haircut in the Augustinian monks of the monastery of St.. Thomas in Brunn (Austria, now Brno, Czech Republic). He served as assistant pastor, taught natural history and physics at school. In 1851-1853 was a volunteer at the University of Vienna, where he studied physics, chemistry, mathematics, zoology, botany and paleontology. Upon his return to Brno worked as an assistant teacher in high school until 1868, when he became abbot of the monastery. In 1856, Mendel began his experiments in crossing different varieties of peas, differing by a single, strictly defined criteria (eg, shape and color of seeds). Accurate quantitative account of all types of hybrids and statistical processing of the results of experiments, . he spent over 10 years, . allowed him to formulate the basic laws of heredity - the splitting and combining of hereditary 'factors',
. Mendel showed that these factors are separated and do not merge in the crossing and did not disappear. Although the crossing of two organisms with contrasting features (eg, . Seeds yellow or green) in the next generation of hybrids appears only one of them (Mendel called it a 'dominant'), . 'disappeared' ( 'recessive') sign appears again in the following generations,
. (Today hereditary 'factors' Mendel called genes.)
The results of his experiments, Mendel said Briinn Society of Naturalists in the spring of 1865; a year later, his article was published in the Proceedings of the Society. The meeting did not ask any questions, and article not received feedback. Mendel sent a copy of the article K. Nцгgeli, a renowned botanist, an authoritative expert on the problems of heredity, but Naegeli also failed to assess its value. And only in 1900 a forgotten Mendel's work has attracted worldwide attention: once three scientists, X. de Vries (Netherlands), C. Correns (Germany) and E. Tschermak (Austria), spending almost simultaneously own experience, convinced of the validity of the findings of Mendel. The law of independent segregation of characters, now known as the law of Mendel, who has started a new trend in biology - Mendelism, which became the foundation of genetics.
Sam Mendel, after unsuccessful attempts to obtain similar results in crosses of other plants, and experiments were terminated before the end of life involved in beekeeping, gardening and meteorological observations.
Among the works of the scientist - Autobiography (Gregorii Mendel autobiographia iuvenilis, 1850) and a number of articles, including experiments on hybridization of plants (Versuche ber Pflanzenhybriden, in 'Proceedings of Briinn Society of Naturalists' t. 4, 1866).
Mendel died in Brц+nn (Austria-Hungary) 6 January 1884.