IVAWS Gaspard (Monge Gaspard)( French mathematician.)
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Biography IVAWS Gaspard (Monge Gaspard)
Born May 9, 1746 in Bone. He studied at the colleges of Bone and Lyon, both taught physics and mathematics. From 1764 he worked in Mezerskoy military engineering school, where he task of calculating the relief fortifications. In 1769 won in the engineering school, a professor of mathematics, in 1770 - Professor of Physics. In 1780 he was elected a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, in 1794 became director of the Ecole Polytechnique. During the eight months served as Navy Minister in the government of Napoleon, was in charge of powder and cannon factories of the republic, who accompanied Napoleon in his expedition to Egypt (1798-1801). Napoleon granted him the title of count, has received numerous other distinctions. During the Hundred Days, Monge resolutely stood on the side of Napoleon. During the Restoration, was stripped of all titles and awards and expelled from the Ecole Polytechnique and the Academy of Sciences.
Monge is known primarily as the founder of descriptive geometry. Combining disparate data on how the image of spatial figures, he came to the idea of projecting them into two mutually perpendicular planes. This work was done by him in Mezerskoy school, but because it was relevant to solving problems of the fortifications, was classified and was published only in 1799 under the name of Descriptive Geometry (Gomtrie descriptive). Embodied in it approach to lecturing on the science and implementation of exercises to these days. Another significant work of Monge - Annex analysis to geometry (L'application de l'analyse la gometrie, 1795) - represents a textbook of analytic geometry, in which special emphasis on the differential relations. There were also the work of Monge in the integration of differential equations in partial derivatives and their geometric representation.
Monge died in Paris on 28 July 1818.