Michel de Montaigne Eykem( French writer and philosopher.)
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Biography Michel de Montaigne Eykem
Born February 28, 1533 in Bordeaux. His father, Pierre Eykem, belonged to the upper middle class, his mother was heiress of a Jewish family had moved to France from Spain or Portugal.
In early childhood, Montaigne was brought up by his father's teaching method, similar in spirit to the views on education F. Rabelais. Mentor boy did not speak French, and spoke with their wards only in Latin. In 6 years, Montaigne was sent to school, and at 21, finished the study of ancient authors, philosophy and law at Toulouse University, he received a judicial office. Soon he made friends with a colleague - Etienne de La Boesi. Throughout the life of Montaigne, there was no one closer, and the early death of La Boesi in 1563 left a deep imprint on his soul.
For some time, Montaigne was not devoid of political ambition. France at that time to descend into the abyss of religious wars, Montaigne, and even took the side of the Catholics, but by temperament and by life experience was an adherent of religious tolerance. Among his closest relatives and friends were many of the Huguenots, and he at one time inclined to the religious compromise. Later he came to the conclusion that to take any part of Catholic doctrine and reject others is impossible, since the Church's teaching is a whole.
In 1565, Montaigne married Franц¬oise de Chassagnou; bride brought him a solid dowry. Father's death in 1568 he inherited the patrimony Montaigne. Here he settled in 1571, having sold his judicial office and going to resign
. Montaigne's first literary work was undertaken at the request of his father's translation of the Latin treatise, whose author, Spanish theologian Raymond Sabundsky, searching for evidence of the truth of the Catholic faith in the arguments of human, natural reason
. Such an approach was the opposite of that advocated Montaigne, namely: that the faith - is beyond reason and above its. The analysis views the Spanish theologian and presenting their own critical thinking about religion is dedicated Apology Raymond Sabundskogo - the most extensive essays of Montaigne, work on it began seven years after the publication of translation.
The earliest of the essays of Montaigne apply to 1572 - the year the night of St. Bartholomew and the outbreak of civil war. Initially it was read before a note about. Favorite Books Montaigne at the time - the message of Seneca, Plutarch in French translation J. Amiot, Latin poets, and several contemporary memoirs and historical works. Above all, Montaigne took such things as statecraft, war, and especially human behavior. Stories travelers also caused his interest. At one of these stories is based essay on cannibals, where Montaigne two centuries before Rousseau develops the idea of the 'noble savage'.
Experiments The first two books were published in 1580 in Bordeaux. Already in these early writings personal theme begins to give way to more general and literary issues. In 1577 Montaigne suffered a first attack of urolithiasis, and three years later went to the water treatment - in Germany and Italy. The fruit of this journey was the Travel diary (Journal de Voyage).
Meanwhile, Montaigne's second elected mayor of Bordeaux. The second term of his tenure was marked by the resumption of civil war and a visit to Bordeaux heir to the throne, Henry of Navarre. Montaigne took Prince and earned its location. But by the time he had lost his political ambition, sought to solitude in his castle, and his thoughts were busy working on the third book Experiments.
The third book, and adding that Montaigne did in the first two, are largely autobiographical. Most of all he is interested in your own experience - not because it seemed to him unique, but because it is the only evidence on which he can rely.
In 1588 Montaigne met in Paris, Marie de Gorne, a young girl, ardent admirer of his ideas. It was as Montaigne would foster daughter and in 1595 released a posthumous edition of Experiments.
In recent years, Montaigne's life were overshadowed by the disease - kidney stones, gout, rheumatism. Even before reaching his sixtieth birthday, he felt old. Despite all the ills that he tried to maintain an active lifestyle, but the invitation of Henry IV to come to him, made in 1590, refused. Montaigne died Sept. 13, 1592.
Experiments Montaigne - this verification test, which it exposes its own views on various issues. Education, friendship, parental love, freedom of conscience, the power over his own will - all from the perspective of personal experience and supported by quotations. Montaigne finds the relativity of all things.
Popularity of Montaigne, which arose during his lifetime, lasted more than half a century after his death. J. Florio, has translated his works into English in 1613, but Shakespeare may have met him ten years earlier. Montaigne's approach to religion was quickly condemned by the Church, and his popularity has fallen. However, in 17. was a favorite author and libertine, and Pascal, who all his life led a dispute with the common sense Montaigne. Even during the recession of interest in Montaigne, between 1669 and 1724, among his admirers was, for example, J. La Bruyц¬re. 18. re-assessed the views of Montaigne, and 19 in. - Psychological subtlety of his reasoning.