IOE Thomas (More Thomas)( English statesman, writer and martyr, celebrated most of his Utopia, which describes the ideal state.)
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Biography IOE Thomas (More Thomas)
Born in London on February 6, 1478 (also possible date of 7 February 1477), his father, John Moore (ca. 1450-1530) was a prominent lawyer, judge of the Queen's Bench to be awarded the title of nobility in the reign of Edward IV (the mind. 1483). Moore was in the best while in London School St.. Anthony, in the age of 12 enrolled as pages (which was then common practice in England) in the house of Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor. Greatest respect, which experienced Mor to his patron, Cardinal, who later found expression in his writings Utopia (Utopia) and History of Richard III. And indeed, it is difficult to overestimate the role of Morton in the upbringing and education of young. Morton fully appreciated the talents of the young pages, and it was probably under his influence, ca. 1492 Moore went to Canterbury College, Oxford University. Moore stayed here for about two years, but was forced to interrupt their studies because his father insisted his son to continue his work. At first, Thomas was determined in the 'New Inn' (one of the London law corporations), and in February 1496 was passed in had more than high status 'Lincoln's Inn'.
At Oxford, Moore met with U. Grotsinom, T. Linakrom and Dzh.Koletom, who played an important role in the revival of classical education, which began to spread in England, then. Studying in London jurisprudence, Mor also deepened his knowledge of Latin and Greek. By this time, is his first publication: two Latin poems, respectively, in the beginning and end of the school textbook grammar Dzh.Holta. Facing strong influence tunic, Mor some time inclined to devote themselves to church service. However, spending about four years (probably 1500 to 1504) in carthusiana convent in London, he nevertheless decided to remain in the world. Nevertheless, Moore has never left the habits acquired in the monastery: early awakening, prolonged prayer, fasting, wearing sackcloth, self-flagellation. In 1504 he married Jane Koult of Nezerholla (Essex), and they have four children - Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecily and John. When Jane died in 1511, Mor, not wanting to keep children without a mother, almost immediately married the widow, Alice Middleton, who was older than him for 7 years.
In 1499, Moore became acquainted with Erasmus, during his first visit to England, and they immediately became close friends. In these fruitful years they have worked together, translated Lucian (1506) and supported each other in their literary designs. In 1509 it was in the house Mora wrote a famous Erasmus Praise of Folly (Encomium moriae, obygryv friend's name in the title). Mor, as well as Colette certainly influenced Erasmus, to focus on the great tasks, and study of biblical church fathers, and that was his main occupation. It was Erasmus first published Latin verses Mora (1518), he constantly lamented that Mohr, the 'unique genius of England', is forced to devote considerable time to the right, which leaves very little room for literary pursuits.
Indeed, the glory Mohr as a lawyer grew. In 1510 he was elected assistant sheriff of London and became known not only for eloquence, which is revealed during the hearings, but also justice and fairness, shown at promoting the interests of clients. Henry VIII, whose accession to the throne Mohr sang in a series of fine Latin poems, soon noticed the talented Londoners, and in May 1515 sent him to Flanders in the embassy, which was to resolve trade conflict. According to Erasmus, on the continent Mohr wrote a second book of Utopia, and in November, returning to England to join her first. During these years, Moore found time for other kinds of literary activity. Even in 1506 he translated from Latin Life of Pico della Mirandola (Life of Pico della Mirandola), written by a nephew of the Italian philosopher, tried to force in a work of English poetry, and about. 1513 dealt with the brilliant writing style, though perhaps not too objective history of Richard III (in two versions - in Latin and English). If we add to this list of Latin poetry, . long letters, . containing the scholastic debate on issues, . primarily addressed to Martin PPER (1515), . Oxford University (1518) and 'monk' (1520), . well as pious treatise The Four Last Things (The Four Last Things, . 1522), . our eyes is presented in a highly unusual image of a young lawyer, . abiding in the ceaseless spiritual quest,
In 1518 Moore accepted an invitation to enter the royal service. In 1521, Moore became assistant treasurer of the kingdom, and was ordained a knighthood, and in 1523 he was elected Speaker of the House of Commons. In many cases, Mohr received foreign envoys, and in 1520 was accompanied by Henry during his famous meeting with Francis I in TN. 'Camp Gold brocade'. The last meeting with Erasmus Mora held in Bruges in 1521.
Meanwhile, Moore has also continued and literary activities, though now she was to give new direction. In 1520 he helped Henry VIII in writing against Luther's treatise Adoption of the seven sacraments (Assertio septem sacramentorum), . through which he received from Pope Leo X the title 'Defender of the Faith' (Fidei Defensor, . Henry and the subsequent English kings kept the title, . even after ceasing to be Catholics),
. When Luther replied Henry furious diatribe, the King instructed Mora to make a rebuttal, and then appeared no less than insulting answer to Luther (Responsio ad Lutherum, 1523). Thus began a period of Mohr's statements in defense of Catholic faith, which is almost completely absorbed his efforts in the literary field over the next 10 years. When the Bishop of London intent on magnify the assault on the Protestant publication, he invited his friend Mora to speak to their refutation in English. Moore agreed, and in 1529 appeared the first and the best of a series of treatises on the heresies Dialogue (Dialogue Concerning Heresies), directed against William Tindela. Then followed: Prayer shower (Supplication of Souls, . 1529) against the attacks on the clergy, Simon Fish and denial of purgatory, . Refutation of an answer Tindela (Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, . two parts, . 1532-1533), . Apology (Apology, . 1533) and Salem and the Subjection Bizensa (Debellation of Salem and Bizance, . 1533) against the two works lawyer, Christopher Saint-Germain,
. Finally, there was a treatise on poisonous Answer Book (Answer to a Poisoned Book, the end of 1533) against the anonymous work of the Lord's Supper (The Supper of the Lord), attributed to long Tindelu (in fact the author was George Joy). In addition, Moore wrote two important polemical letters - John Bugenhagenu (ca. 1526) and John Fries (1533).
But by the time the British polemical writings Mora started one after another out of print, both in England and on the continent there are signs of change. In 1527 Henry VIII turned to Mora for advice in connection with his alleged divorce from Catherine of Aragon, but after detailed study of this problem, he told the king that he could not support it. Then Henry promised that he would resort to the services of other lawyers to resolve 'of the case high priority' (as were then called the question of the royal divorce). Outwardly everything looked as if the position of Mora and his fame were still on the rise. In 1524 he became manager of the University of Oxford, and in 1525 - University of Cambridge, in the same 1525 he was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Around 1527, Hans Holbein, who patronized Mor (for a while even the artist lived in his house), wrote a large portrait of his benefactor. In 1527, Moore was accompanied by the Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey in his furnished with unusual pomp mission to France, . in summer 1529 represented the King at the ceremony of signing a peace treaty in Cambrai, . through which England did not know the wars over the next 13 years,
. 25 October, two months after his return to England, Moore became the Lord Chancellor (an unprecedented event in the history of England, because he was not the highest church officials and was not one of the highest aristocracy), succeeding Wolsey.
As the Lord Chancellor, Mor was responsible for the punishment of heretics, but the charges against him for cruelty and intolerance should be declared invalid. He steadily opposed heresies, being convinced that it is in the best public interest, but it can not be accused of bigotry or undue severity. Moreover, Moore's biographer, William Roper, said that while he was a judge, none of the cases has been postponed a hearing in the Court of Chancery - so quick and just had his sentence. Most of the power Mora as the Lord Chancellor was rather formal, . than real, . as tending towards the Reformation Parliament held its course and becomes more undeniable, . that in the event of his marriage to Anne Boleyn Henry will have to break with Rome,
. In this situation, the king less and less frequently turned to for advice Mora. May 15, 1532 British clergy announced the complete obedience to the king, and the next day, citing ill health (he really was sick), Moore filed a petition for ostavke.
At least for a year Mor modestly lived in Chelsea, continuing to work on the polemical writings, and devoting himself to ascetic practices, which have always had a tendency. June 1, 1533, he failed to appear at the coronation of Anne Boleyn. Soon the yard was required to Mora that he put up with the new title of the King as head of the church. The new minister, Thomas Cromwell, the king tried to accuse Moore of treason (he had supported the famous nun prophetess, who had predicted the death of the king in the event of his marriage to Anne Boleyn), but the prosecution failed to disprove. And then April 12, 1534 he ordered to appear at Lambeth Palace in the morning before a special commission to take an oath to the Act of Succession, and to take an oath on the rule of King over the Church. Moore was sworn in, but do not swear, as the latter meant a refusal to recognize the rule of the Pope in religious matters. April 17 Mor was again summoned to the commission, and when he again refused to swear him imprisoned in the Tower.
Now against Mora started the process, although direct investigative steps have been taken only in April 1535. Moore has consistently denied that he acted maliciously in refusing to take an oath, and claimed that the reasons for which he did so entirely within the scope of his conscience and he will not open them to anyone. Again and again attempted to persuade him to obedience or caught in the trap, causing utter words which could be interpreted as a betrayal. Finally, 1 July 1535 on the basis of false testimony of Richard Rich, henchman Cromwell, Moore was found guilty of treason. Now, when the verdict was announced, Moore could speak openly. He made a lengthy speech, and it declared that the decision to which his conscience led, supported by all the Christian churches, the cathedral and not a single kingdom. July 6, near the Tower Mohr was beheaded. Coming to the scaffold, he said that 'die like a good servant of the king, but in the first place - God'.
The last year of life Mora when he was in the Tower was filled with literary work. In addition to numerous letters to the family (some of them written in charcoal, since 12 June 1535 were taken away books, papers and stationery), he continued to have begun prior to the Treatise on the Passion (Treatise on the Passion). This work Mor left unfinished, but picked up the same theme again, this time in Latin, as presented by the passions (Expositio passions), an extremely bright reflections on the last hours of the earthly life of Christ. It is in the Tower he wrote his most perfect in a literary essay on the English-language dialogue of comfort among adversities (Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation). After the death of Mora, all of these works passed to his daughter Margaret Roper (mind. 1544), and from it - to his nephew William Rastelli, who in 1557 (during the reign of Catholic Queen Mary) has published the works of British Mora. Latin writings were partially published in Basel in 1563, a more complete edition was published in Louvain in 1565-1566.
Mohr's death mourned by the whole of Europe, the traces left by his personality was so deep that appeared a whole school of biographers, headed by his son in law William Roper, whose efforts to end 16. created several biographies Mora. Representatives of this school are often openly proclaimed the sanctity of Mora with what is implicitly accepted, and others, but it included among the choir of the blessed occurred only in 1886, declaring him as a saint - in 1935. Even those who this mysterious and difficult personality baffled, always in one way or another recognized his holiness. Socialists and liberals always were addressed to the prophetic terms of its Utopia, and in the Soviet Union proclaimed it one of the heralds of a so-called. 'scientific socialism'.
Utopia Mohr written in Latin in 1515-1516. Name of works (entitled on behalf of the fantastic island) produced from two Greek words 'y' (negation) and 'topos' ( 'place'), so that it can be translated as 'Nigdeya'. For the first edition (Louvain, 1516) followed by a second (Paris, 1517), and then another two (Basel, March and November 1518). The best text contains the March edition of 1518, which took into account the corrections made by Mohr. By 1750 the work has stood the 44 editions, including translations into German (1524), Italian (1548), French (1550), English (Ralph Robinson, 1551) and Spanish (1637) Languages. In 1789 came out and the Russian translation, made with the French.
The most well known second book of Utopia, which describes an ideal society in which there is no private property. Yet literary dignity of labor is largely related to the mutual relationship existing between the two books. In the first book of Mor in artistic form reproduces the conversation, . which allegedly took place in the house of his friend Peter Giles of Antwerp with the participation of the host, . Mora and most unusual traveler, . returned from distant lands, . some of Rafael Gitlodeya,
. The two sides, especially the example of England, discuss the economic and social problems, and the author puts into the mouth Gitlodeya crushingly satirical, but at the same time, amazingly accurate description of the plagues afflicting modern society. When Gitlodeya ask how to improve the situation, he replied that he could help only one thing: to get people to live by the laws of reason, just as do the inhabitants of Utopia.
The second book is devoted to the ideal social system of Utopia, which highlights the advantages and driving hazards, described in the first book. Gitlodey argues that visited Utopia, traveling in the New World. According to him, in the perimeter of the island is 800 km, it has 54 beautifully designed city. All of the island is in the common property, . population is maintained at a constant level, . agricultural production has priority attention, . with all members of society are attracted to it by turns, . and products are distributed through the public markets and dining,
. As the needs of every citizen is sufficiently satisfied with the education and all are capable of pacifying their pride and greed of Utopia there is no money, no luxury. All islanders are trained as agriculture and trade, six-hour working day, leaving enough time for rest and moderate co-education. Rulers are elected from among the academic people, the selection of which is in accordance with their abilities. Laws few, and their language so clear that lawyers need not. Chance of divorce on grounds of adultery or unbearable life together. Wars with other countries being only in self-defense or liberation of the oppressed. In Utopia allowed different religions, but those who do not believe in the immortality of the soul and divine providence, can not be elected to public office. The highest penalty for almost arbitrarily serious crime is slavery. Thus, the population of Utopia live in accordance with the laws of nature, believing that the pleasures of intelligent life, is the highest good for man.