John von Neumann (Neumann John von)( American mathematician.)
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Biography John von Neumann (Neumann John von)
Born December 3, 1903 in Budapest. In 1926 he graduated from Budapest University, received his Ph.D.. He continued his mathematical studies in GцTttingen, Berlin and Hamburg. In 1931-1933 he worked at Princeton University - first as a lecturer and then professor of mathematical physics. In 1933 joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, has remained a professor of the Institute before the end of life. During the Second World War, von Neumann participated in various defense projects, t.ch. of the atomic bomb.
Neumann made a significant contribution to the development of many areas of mathematics. His first works, written under the influence of D. Hilbert, devoted to the foundations of mathematics. When K. GцTdel showed impracticability of the proposed program of Hilbert, von Neumann left the research in this area and started the functional analysis and its application to quantum mechanics. Neumann belongs to a rigorous mathematical formulation of the principles of quantum mechanics, . in particular, its probabilistic interpretation, his work Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, . 1932) is considered a classic,
. In 1932 von Neumann proved the equivalence of wave and matrix mechanics. Study of the foundations of quantum mechanics led him to a better understanding of the theory of operators and the creation of the theory of unbounded operators.
Proceedings of the Neumann had an impact on economics. The scientist has become one of the founders of game theory - the field of mathematics that deals with the study of situations involving the adoption of optimal solutions. Application of game theory to address the economic problems turned out to be less important than the theory itself. The results of these studies were published in the Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, in conjunction with the economist O. Morgenstern, 1944). The third area of science, which has influenced creativity Neumann became the theory of computers and the axiomatic theory of automata. Real monument to his achievements are the computers themselves, the principles of which have been developed precisely Neumann (partly in conjunction with G. Goldstein).
Neumann died in Washington on February 8, 1957.