Julius Nyerere (Nyerere Julius)( President of Tanzania.)
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Biography Julius Nyerere (Nyerere Julius)
Born in March 1922 about Butiamy on the eastern shore of Lake. Victoria. His father, the youngest leader of a small tribe zanaki, had 22 wives and 26 children. Nyerere was the first son of the fourth wife. At age 12 he enrolled in school at the Catholic mission, which he graduated with honors. He continued his studies at the only secondary school Tanganyika. In 1943-1945 he studied at University College, Makerere University (Uganda). Within two years he taught in a Catholic school Tabory. In 1949 was sent to study in Scotland, where he received a master's degree at Edinburgh University.
In 1954, Nyerere founded the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Repeatedly presented in the UN Trusteeship Council. In 1958 TANU was strong enough organization to get the most votes in elections to local legislative bodies. When in September 1961, Tanganyika gained limited self-government, Nyerere was appointed Chief Minister. In May 1961 he became prime minister, and in December 1961 Tanganyika gained its full independence. A year later, Nyerere was elected president of Tanganyika, and after unification in 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar became president of the United Republic of Tanzania.
Nyerere created a one-party state, but allow party members to carry on the struggle for seats in parliament. In 1967, stated that the basis for the development of Tanzania should be no foreign aid, and self-reliance, nationalized businesses and maintained the traditions of rural communities.
In the late 1960 Nyerere recognized branch of Biafra from Nigeria, and refused to recognize the regime of Idi Amin in Uganda. Since 1975 advocated the transfer of power in Rhodesia, the armed organization Patriotic Front. He became one of the founders of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1963, have been critical of policies of the white minority in South Africa, Namibia and Rhodesia.
Nyerere retired in 1985, but remained leader of the Revolutionary Party until August 1990. During the 1990's was involved in peace initiatives, including the process of political settlement in Burundi and Kenya.
Nyerere died in London on 14 October 1999.