John James Audubon (Audubon John James)( American ornithologist and artist.)
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Biography John James Audubon (Audubon John James)
Born April 26, 1785 in Les Cayes (Santo Domingo, now Haiti). Around 1794 his father took the boy to France. In 1803 at the insistence of his father, John went to America to become the manager of its lead mines in southwestern Pennsylvania. Engaged in bird-ringing, bandaging pirn young lapwings silver threads. Soon Audubon possessed a passion for painting birds, because of which he gave up the case and eventually found himself in debtors' prison. After leaving prison, Audubon became a street artist. In January 1821 Audubon arrived in New Orleans, where he joined the family. However, it soon found itself again in poverty, and in 1822 he moved to Natchez, where he taught French, drawing and dancing, he painted portraits, painted river vessels and even painted road signs.
Desperate to find an American publisher for his drawings, Audubon followed the advice of Charles Lucien Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon I and the famous naturalist, to find subscribers in Europe. In the end, Audubon could produce copper plates, and print the drawings, which he then painted. In search of a publisher and subscribers Audubon in 1826 went to Liverpool, while traveling sketch of sea birds. In 1827 was published the first of four volumes of work Birds of America (Birds of America). Audubon was elected a member of the Royal Society of London and the Linnean Society, G. Cuvier called it a monument of pictures of Ornithology. In 1831 was published the first of five volumes of Ornithological Biography (Ornithological Biography). In 1838 edition of Birds of America was completed, the last volume sent to subscribers. In 1839 in Edinburgh, came the final volume of ornithological biography.
Audubon's next project is the publication of volume viviparous quadrupeds of North America (Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America). To collect the material scientist, sailed up the Missouri, hoping to reach the Pacific coast, but managed to get a settlement before the Mandan tribe in North Dakota.
Audubon died in New York on January 27, 1851.