OCCAM William( English scholastic philosopher, known today mainly through his proposed principle of economy of thought ( 'Occam's razor').)
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Biography OCCAM William
(ca. 1284 - ca. 1350)
Born c.. 1284 in the village of Ockham (Surrey, England). After joining the Franciscan Order he studied at Oxford University, where he received a doctorate in theology and the position of 'intseptora', or bachelor's degree, ie. teachers of lower rank. Later, his followers called him 'Venerable intseptorom' (Inceptor venerabilis). Another of his honorary title was the title of 'invincible teacher' (Doctor invincibilis).
At Oxford Occam wrote some of his most important philosophical and theological works, in particular - lengthy commentary on MAXIMS Peter Lombard. Okkamizm opposed Thomism and skotizmu (philosophical systems of Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus) and gained popularity in the late Middle Ages as an expression of 'modern' method of philosophizing (via moderna). Occam's teachings can be described as pure nominalism, since Ockham argued that universals (general concepts) are the only 'names' - contained in the mind 'concept' and 'words' oral or written language. 'Concepts' - these are natural signs of things, and 'words' - just konvetsionalnye (conditional) signs. Have no real existence of universals, and the individual, ie. unit, things of the world - 'partikulyarii'. This emphasis on the unit as the only reality is the essence of okkamizma.
Furthermore, Ockham insisted that any real explanation (and hence - any theological or philosophical speculative system) should be extremely simple. This principle of 'economy of thought' was called 'Occam's Razor'. Ockham himself formulated it as follows: 'the essence should not be multiplied without necessity'. This principle he used to, . to remove many of the philosophical system of metaphysical concepts and principles, . imposed on it by his predecessors (in particular - Duns Scotus), . abolished, . example, . distinction between 'existence' and 'essence', . 'general' and 'individual' substances, . 'soul' and 'abilities of the soul',
Another key point was to present the teachings of Occam's the absolute power of God. God is not bound by any physical or moral law: it can make evil good, and, conversely, good - evil. It may also justify the sinner, who, in his sin, turned from him,. Okkamovo doctrine that 'excuse' rights is simply acceptance of his God, does not imply a change in his heart prompted Luther to declare himself an adherent okkamizma.
In 1324 Pope John XXII in Avignon Occam called, he responded to the charges against him for heresy. While the Occam was never formally convicted, the papal commission rejected the 51 thesis, borrowed from his writings, including his teaching on justification of rights and freedom of God from the moral law, his agnosticism, and the doctrine of the Eucharist. In 1328 Ockham was excommunicated and fled from Avignon to seek refuge in the sworn enemy of the Pope, Ludwig of Bavaria. Here he wrote treatises on church and state, denying the absolute authority of the pope and speaking in support of the independence of the secular rulers of the church. Recognizing the priority of the pope in addressing spiritual issues, he at the same time insisted that the decisions of the ecumenical councils should restrict papal power. In the last years of life Occam tried to come to terms with the then-pope, Clement VI. In 1349 my father gave him forgiveness. Ockham died (probably of the plague) in 1349 or 1350.
Occam - one of the most influential British philosophers, theologians and political thinkers of the late Middle Ages. His nominalism paved the way empiricism and positivism, the New Age. The subsequent development of religious and political thought was deeply influenced by the doctrine of separation of Occam's spheres of competence of faith and reason, church and state, as well as its ideal of a democratic polity.