Francesco Petrarch (Petrarca Francesco)( Italian poet, recognized literary arbiter of his time and the forerunner of the European Humanist movement.)
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Biography Francesco Petrarch (Petrarca Francesco)
Born July 20, 1304 in Arezzo, where due to political unrest fled his father, a Florentine notary. Seven months later, his mother took away Francesco in Anchizu, where they remained until 1311. In early 1312 his family moved to Avignon (France). After four years of studying with a private teacher Francesco gave to law school in Montpellier. In 1320, together with his brother, he went to Bologna to continue the study of jurisprudence. In April 1326, after the death of his father, both brothers returned to Avignon. By the time Petrarch had already showed undeniable penchant for literary pursuits.
In 1327, Good Friday, in Avignon church, he met and fell in love with a girl named Laura - more about her unknown. It was she who inspired Petrarch to the best of his poems.
To earn a living, Petrarch decided to take orders. He was ordained, but hardly ever performed services. In 1330 he went as chaplain to Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, in 1335 received his first benefice.
In 1337 Petrarca bought a small estate in the Vaucluse, a valley near Avignon. There he began with two works in Latin - the epic poem Africa (Africa) to the winner of Hannibal and Scipio Africanus book about the glorious muzhah (De viris illustribus) - a set of biographies of famous people of antiquity. Then he began to write lyric poetry in Italian, poems and letters in Latin, took up comedy Philology (Filologia), now lost. By 1340 the literary work of Petrarch, his connection with the papal court, and long-distance travel courted him European fame. April 8, 1341 to address the Roman Senate, he was crowned with laurels Poet Laureate.
1342-1343 Petrarch spent in the Vaucluse, where he continued to work on the epic poem and biographies, as well as on the model of the Confessions of St.. Augustine, who wrote a book-My secret confession (Secretum Meum) in the form of three dialogues between the Saint. Augustine and Petrarch to the court of Truth. At the same written or initiated penitential psalms (Psalmi poenitentialis); about memorable events (Rerum memorandum libri) - a treatise on the fundamental virtues in the form of a collection of anecdotes and biographies, didactic poem The Triumph of Love (Triumphus Cupidinis) and the Triumph of Chastity (Triumphus Pudicitie), . written in terza rima, and the first edition of the book of lyric poetry in Italian - Kantsonere (Canzoniere),
By the end of 1343 Petrarch went to Parma, where he stayed until early 1345. In Parma, he continued to work on Africa and the treatise On the memorable events. Both of these works, he has not finished and it looks like more of them did not return. At the end of 1345 Petrarca newly arrived in Vaucluse. In the summer of 1347 he was enthusiastically greeted the uprising raised in Rome, Cola di Rienzo (later suppressed). During this period he wrote eight of the twelve allegorical eclogue bucolic songs (Bucolicum carmen, . 1346-1357), . Two prose treatise: On the solitary life (De vita solitaria, . 1346) and on monastic leisure (De otio religioso, . 1347) - about the beneficial effects of a solitary life of idleness and a creative mind, . and took over second edition Kantsonere,
Perhaps it was sympathy for the rebellion Cola di Rienzo led Petrarch in 1347 to take the trip to Italy. However, his desire to join the revolt in Rome, extinguished as soon as he learned of the atrocities committed by Coke. He stopped again in Parma. In 1348, the plague claimed the lives of Cardinal Columns and Laura. In 1350 Petrarca met and became friends with Giovanni Boccaccio and Francesco Nelli. During his stay in Italy, he wrote four more eclogues and the poem The Triumph of Death (Triumphus Mortis), began his poem The Triumph of Fame (Triumphus Fame), and began verse letters (Epistolae metricae) and writing in prose.
Years 1351-1353 Petrarch spent mainly in the Vaucluse, paying particular attention to public life, especially the state of affairs at the papal court. Then he wrote invectives against doctors (Invectiva contro medicum), criticizing the practices of physicians Pope. Most of the letters written during this period and criticizing the situation in Avignon, were later collected in a book without addresses (Liber sine nomine).
In 1353, Petrarch at the invitation of the Archbishop of Milan, Giovanni Visconti, settled in Milan, where he served as Secretary, speaker and an emissary. Then he finished bucolic collection of songs and no address; began a lengthy treatise on remedies against any Fortune (De remediis ultriusque fortunae), . which eventually encompassed more than 250 conversations about, . how to cope with success and failure; wrote Way to Syria (Itinerarium syriacum) - guide for pilgrims to the Holy Land,
. In 1361 Petrarca left Milan, fleeing the plague raged there. Year he spent in Padua, at the invitation of the Carrara family, which completed work on a collection of verse epistles, as well as a collection of letters about the affairs of private life (Familiarum rerum libri XXIV), which included 350 letters in Latin. At the same time Petrarch began another book - old man's letters (Seniles), which ultimately included 125 letters written between 1361 and 1374 and divided into 17 books.
In 1362 Petrarca, still fleeing from the plague, fled to Venice. In 1366 a group of young followers of Aristotle, made a attack on Petrarch. He replied, biting invective about his own ignorance, and others (De sui ipsius et multorum ignorantia).
In 1370 Petrarca bought a modest villa in Arcview, the Evganeyskih hills. In 1372 hostilities between Padua and Venice, made his escape for a while in Padua. After the defeat of Padua, he, together with its governor traveled to Venice to negotiate for peace. In the past seven years, life continued to improve Petraraka Kantsonere (last amended in 1373 collection entitled in Latin Rerum vulgarium fragmenta - Passages in the vernacular) and worked on the triumphs, . where in the final version included six consecutive 'Triumph': Love, . Chastity, . Death, . Glory, . Time and Eternity,
. Petrarch died in Arcview July 19, 1374.
Petrarca subjected to audit the cultural heritage of antiquity, carefully analyzing the texts of ancient writers, and restoring their original appearance. He himself felt like standing at the crossroads of two eras. His life he considered decadent and depraved, but could not grasp some of his passions. Such, for example, prefer the teachings of Plato and St.. Augustine Aristotelian and Thomistic, . Petrarch's refusal to recognize the secular poetry and an active life obstacle to Christian salvation, . view of poetry as the highest form of art and learning, . understanding of the virtues as the common denominator of ancient and Christian culture and, . Finally, . passionate desire to return to Rome the center of the civilized world,
Petrarch throes of a deep internal conflict caused by the collision of his beliefs and aspirations with the requirements of a Christian. That he Petrarch's poetry owes its highest ups. The immediate sources of inspiration have unrequited love for Laura and admiration for the valor and virtues of the ancients, embodied primarily in the figure of Scipio Africanus the Elder. Petrarch believed to Africa his main achievement, but his 'miraculous monument' steel Kantsonere - 366 various Italian poems, mostly devoted to Laura.
Sublime lyricism of these poems can not be explained only by the influence of Petrarch's poetry Provencal troubadours, 'sweet new style', Ovid and Virgil. Drawing a parallel between his love for Laura and the myth of Daphne, . Petrarch who understands symbolically - as a story not only of fleeting love, . but also about the eternal beauty of poetry, . - He brings in his 'book of the song' new, . deeply personal and lyrical experience of love, . vesting it in a new art form,
Bowing down to the achievements of ancient heroes and thinkers, Petrarch at the same time considering their achievements as a sign of deep need for moral regeneration and redemption, longing for eternal bliss. Christian life fuller and richer, because he was given to understand that God's light can turn knowledge into true wisdom of the past. This is the refraction of pagan mythology in the prism of the Christian worldview is present in the love lyrics of Petrarch, where the keynote theme of redemption. Laura as Beauty, Poetry and Earthly Love deserves admiration, but not at the cost of salvation. Even sinful love can be justified before God as pure poetry.
The first meeting with Petrarch's Laura has occurred, he said, Good Friday. Petrarch and further identifies the favorite with religious, moral and philosophical ideals, making it at the same time focus on its incomparable physical beauty. So his love turns out to be on a par with Plato's eternal ideas, leading people to the supreme good. But while Petrarch and is located within the poetic tradition, going back to Andrew's chaplain and ending 'sweet new style', yet neither love nor the beloved is not he something unearthly, transcendent.
Admire the ancient writers, Petrarch developed a Latin style, which was much more perfect than Latin, the time. Essays on the Italian language, he attached no value. Perhaps that is why some of the poems in Kantsonere have a purely formal qualities: in them he is fond of word play, striking contrasts and strained metaphors. Unfortunately, these features most readily adopted the imitators of Petrarch (TN. petrarkizm).
Sonnet of Petrarch, one of the two typical forms of the sonnet (along with Shakespeare), differs dvuchastnym dividing by the initial octave (octave) with the rhyme abba abba and a final shestistishie (sextet) with rhyme cde cde.
In one form or another petrarkizm appeared in most European countries. After reaching a peak in 16. He periodically revived until recently. The early stage of mainly imitated the works of Petrarch's Latin, and later - a triumph, and finally Kantsonere, whose influence was most persistent. Among the famous poets and writers of the Renaissance, . in one way or another have experienced the influence of Petrarch, . - Dzh.Bokkachcho, . M. Boyard, . L. Medici and T. Tasso in Italy, the Marquis de Santillana, . Markov, . G.de la Vega, . H. Boscan and F.de Herrera, Spain; K. Maro, . Jean du Bellay, . M. North, . P. Ronsard and F. backwardation in France; Dzh.Choser, . T. Wyatt, . GH Surrey, . E. Spencer, . F. Sydney, . T. Lodge and G. Constable in England, P. Fleming, . M. Opitz, . G. Vekkerlin and T. Heck in Germany,
. In the romantic period, Petrarch also found admirers and imitators, among them the most notable U. Foscolo and Dzh.Leopardi in Italy; A. Lamartine, A. de Musset and Victor Hugo in France; HW Longfellow Dzh.R.Louell and W. Irving in America.