Robert Peel (Peel Robert)( British statesman 19., Founder of the Conservative Party.)
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Biography Robert Peel (Peel Robert)
Born February 5, 1788 in Bury (Lancashire), was the eldest son of Robert Peel, a businessman, successfully engaged in cotton production, and received in 1800, when William Pitt the Younger, baronet. He graduated from Harrow and Christ Church College, Oxford University. In 1909 he was elected to parliament. Receiving the first experience of state activity as first assistant secretary in the War Department and then in the Ministry of Colonies in 1812 Peel was appointed State Secretary for Ireland.
Occupying this position for six years, Peel has shown uncommon abilities Administrator. In 1814, thanks largely to his efforts succeeded in suppressing the activity of the Catholic Council (the central committee organized by the Catholic movement in Ireland) and thereby stop the first organized political agitation in Ireland since the Anglo-Irish union 1801,
. To cope with the state of lawlessness, . characteristic of Irish society, . Pil proposed in 1814 a law on the preservation of peace, . through which initiated the establishment of the National Police, . later known as the Royal Irish police,
. His solution to the problem of famine in Ireland in 1817 was one of the most significant achievements of the Government. When in 1818 Peel left Ireland, he had a reputation as one of the most able young people in the government. In addition, he became an energetic supporter of the 'Protestant' in parliament, opposed the repeal of old laws on Catholics. According to these laws, going back to 17., Catholics were forbidden to be members of parliament and hold high public office. Having played a significant role in the rejection of a bill on the emancipation of Catholics, 1817, Peel was elected in the same year a member of Parliament from Oxford University.
Although Peel twice refused to minor posts in government, he continued as an active pro-government position in the House of Commons. In 1819 he headed an important committee of monetary and made a return to cash payments and the gold standard. After the reorganization of the government in 1822, Peel became Minister of Internal Affairs and conducted a reform of criminal law. In 1823-1830 were systematized ancient statutes, was to improve the prison system were mitigated punishment for criminal offenses and to expedite court procedures. Trying to cope with rising crime, Peel insisted on the need to improve the system of determining guilt. In 1829 he founded the London municipal police. In honor of Sir Robert British police dubbed 'Bobby'.
Alarmed by the growing influence of trade unions, and unrest in the industrial areas, Peel began to vigorously enforce factory legislation and sought to maintain the balance of power between employers and employees. He did not interfere in purely economic conflicts, yet in a strike which began in 1826 in industry Peel managed to restore order without the use of contingency measures.
When in 1827, RB Liverpool resigned as prime minister, Peel abandoned his post, as the costs of Dzh.Kanningom the question about Catholics. But in 1828 he returned to the government of Wellington, once again becoming the Minister of Internal Affairs and leader of both the House of Commons. After the formation in 1823 the Catholic Association of the force of the movement for the abolition of the laws of Catholics has increased markedly. Reluctantly yielding to pressure from the Prime Minister, Peel had in 1829 a bill on the emancipation of Catholics, according to which Catholics receive almost equal political rights with Protestants. As a result, he lost his seat in Parliament, and the loss of many supporters of the government was defeated in elections and resigned in November 1830
. Although Peel and was nominated in another constituency, . split in the party left him in isolation, and he regularly spoke out against the adoption of a bill on parliamentary reform, . proposed new Whig government in 1831, . but in 1832 refused to join the government in Wellington, . to hold an alternative draft reform,
. Thanks to a moderate position on the Whig Reform Bill he was able to largely restore its reputation. The unexpected decision on the resignation of William IV Whig government in 1834 had set Peel almost impossible task of forming a new government. Nevertheless, the first hundred days of his premiership (November 1834 - April 1835) were marked by his public statement of new principles of conservatism known as Tamuetsky manifesto and Peel became the acknowledged leader of the Party. Despite the fact that Peel did not win the election 1835, scanty Conservative Party increased its representation in the House of Commons, adding 100 new members. In 1835-1841 led Peel Conservative Party is constantly increasing influence, aided by well-organized elections. Conflict with Queen Victoria in connection with the requirement to replace some of the ladies Whig orientation not given opportunities Peel became Prime Minister in 1839. However, the election 1841 he defeated the Whigs in a direct vote on the issue of confidence in the government, and soon the Conservative Party won a majority of 70 votes in the House of Commons.
Latest government Peel (September 1841 - June 1846) was one of the most brilliant in the 19., It included six former and future prime ministers, four future governor of India. Some of these able young ministers such as Gladstone, Sidney Herbert and Edward Kardvell, later formed the core group of prominent politicians in the middle of 19. Named saws. The main goals of domestic policy Peel were reduced cost of living for the poor and the promotion of industrial development through the stabilization of the financial system and a general reduction of duties. In his first budget in 1842, he celebrated the newly introduced income tax, which existed even in the era of the Napoleonic wars, has cut import tariffs on many goods and raw materials, to eliminate duties on exports of manufactured goods. Banking Act of 1844 completed the establishment of British banking and monetary system 19. And a significant increase of budget revenues made possible a further significant reduction in taxes and tariffs in the second free-trade budget for 1845. The prosperity of the country nullified the Chartist movement, which became particularly violent in nature 1839-1842. Even the industrialists in the north of the country, united in the League against the Corn Laws in 1842 and have used in their campaign to the Chartists, turned to more constitutional methods of propaganda.
In foreign policy, especially in relations with France and the U.S. government Peel has a firm but conciliatory policy. Contract Webster - Ashburton 1842 finally allowed the disputed border issue between the State of Maine and New Brunswick in Canada. Oregon Treaty of 1846 and the lands away with yet another border dispute between the U.S. and the UK. Movement in Ireland for the abolition of the Union, which has become dangerously influential after 1842, was halted a crackdown in 1843. On the other hand, the commission was established under the leadership of Lord Devon to study and reform of the Irish agrarian system in 1845 were adopted acts establishing the Irish universities to Catholics and dissenterov.
Famine in Ireland caused by the loss of potato crop in 1845, and poor harvests across the Peel of Britain was forced to take the decision to abolish duties on imports of foreign grain. The final decision to abolish the Corn Laws were adopted in June 1846. In the Conservative Party again came split, . and after a series of debates, . in which B. Disraeli made his name exposing the brilliant prime minister, . majority of party members, . led Dzh.Bentinkom, . separated from the group, . led Peel,
. Peel resigned in the future refrain from engaging in purely party opposition against. He gave advice and assistance to the Government under the leadership of the Whigs Dzh.Rassela, which continued to free-trade policies Peel. Peel died in London on July 2, 1850.