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Karl Raimund Popper (Popper Karl Raimund)

( British philosopher of Austrian origin.)

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Biography Karl Raimund Popper (Popper Karl Raimund)
(1902-1994)
Born in Vienna on July 28, 1902 in the family of a prominent lawyer. Belonged to the Socialists and the Communists, but later abandoned the socialist ideas, realizing that they are evil more than promised to fix. On Popper has influenced the cultural climate of Vienna in the early 20.: Music, science, philosophy, political ideas. He entered the University of Vienna in 1918, where he studied mathematics and theoretical physics, philosophy, reading books on self. In 1920-1922 thinking about becoming a professional musician, joined the 'society, private concerts' A. Schonberg, during the year studied composition at the Vienna Conservatory. Deciding that enough is capable of music, left the conservatory and in 1921-1924 mastering the profession of carpenter. At the same time engaged in social work and conduct of school reform, he worked as a volunteer at children's clinics, A. Adler, with whom he had known personally. Adler Confident diagnoses patients, whom he did not even examined, forced Popper doubt in psychoanalysis and 'clinical data'. That is, as well as false claims of Marxism to be scientific, coupled with studying the works of Einstein, led him to the formulation of a so-called. the principle of falsification. Popper questioned, . what distinguishes scientific theories (like Einstein) of pseudoscientific doctrines of Marx, . Freud and Adler, . and concluded, . that scientific theory does not evidence and no proof of its provisions, . and the ability to exclude the possibility of some events,
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Popper was one of the first employees at the Pedagogical Institute at the University of Vienna, making the acquaintance of K. Buller, who later was supervisor of his dissertation on the problem of method in psychology. Linguistic ideas Buhler influenced the Popperian concept of language and the World-3. After graduating from the University, Popper married Josephine Anna Henninger and taught mathematics and physics in high school one of Vienna's high schools. At that time, Ludwig Wittgenstein and logical positivists, who were part of the Vienna Circle, actively promoted a so-called. 'verification criterion of value', which prompted Popper to develop and then publish their own ideas about the demarcation and induction. Wittgenstein and the positivists equated distinction of science and metaphysics to distinguish meaningful and meaningless proposals. Popper emphatically rejected the view of the meaninglessness of metaphysical theories, . as well as the concept, . according to which the theory acquires meaning and becomes scientific only, . if it is possible inductive verified through empirical observation,
. His first published book - Logic Research (Logik der Forschung, . 1935) won wide recognition for his criticism inductivism, . protection of philosophy and the presentation of 'falsifiability' (as opposed to 'verifiable') as a criterion of science, . as well as the assertion, . that metaphysical theories may be relevant, . even if they are not manipulated,
.

Popper went on to teach at the school until 1937, without waiting for the Anschluss of Austria, agreed to become a teacher of philosophy at Canterbury College in Christchurch (New Zealand), where he remained for nine years follow. It was at this time, he wrote a seminal study, which contained criticisms of authoritarianism, the Open Society and Its Enemies (The Open Society and Its Enemies, 1945), that analyzed the hidden motives in the totalitarian doctrines of Plato, Hegel and Marx. This book, which Popper called his "contribution to military action ', established his reputation as the world-famous philosopher. In 1946, adopting the suggestion of the London School of Economics, he moved to England. Popper was appointed professor of the LSE in 1949, knighted in 1965 and devoted the rest of my life philosophy. He died in Croydon (England) September 17, 1994.

Epistemology. Popper recognized that truth is objective and absolute nature, but emphasized that, in principle, our knowledge is imperfect and subject to constant revision. He rejected the widespread interpretation of knowledge as justified true belief. Unlike most of his contemporaries, Popper argued that the theory does not necessarily be justified, true or credible so that it could be scientific. He went further and argued that the demand from our scientific knowledge that it was justified or proven, irrational. No theory about the world can not be justified or confirmation. Many critics of Popper on this basis called him irrationalists and skeptic. However, the philosopher argued that the requirement is 'justification', rather than our inability to it leads to skepticism and irrationalism. While most of his contemporaries considered the condition of rationality of the theory of the possibility of its justification, Popper believed that knowledge is rational only if we are able to carry out his criticism. While most of his contemporaries believed, . that scientific theories are based on empirical observations and can be justified with their help, . Popper argued, . that the important thing in science - not the, . we arrive at our theories, . otherwise, . Are they, . and to what extent can, . cause a critical discussion,
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Popper rejected attempts to justify knowledge references to the authority of experts. He called himself a big fan of scientists and scientific theories, but said that we believe in the existence of vain scientific experts, whose opinions could be fully relied. The task of higher education - not in the training of experts, and in the formation of people with critical skills developed so that they can distinguish experts from the charlatans. Popper called his philosophy of critical rationalism. He articulates his position ( 'moral credit') as follows: 'I may be wrong, but you may be right, make an effort, and we may come closer to the truth'.

Critical rationalism began as an attempt to solve the problem of induction and demarcation, Popper considered 'two fundamental problems of epistemology'. Hume, believing that our ideas are extracted from experience but an inductive inference from the experience of unfounded, concluded that the theories that are not reducible to the experience are meaningless and that our scientific knowledge about the world based on adherence to custom and habit. Kant, trying to save the natural-science rationality, argued that our a posteriori knowledge about the world based on a priori intuition, a priori concepts and principles of a priori truths. However, Wittgenstein and logical positivists had returned to the empiricism of Hume, Kant when samples of a priori truths Sciences - Euclidean geometry and Newtonian mechanics - reeling in the further development of science. Wittgenstein and positivists argued that the meaning of utterances is the method of its verification and that it is an empirical verifiable distinguishes science from metaphysics and the meaning of the nonsense.

Popper agreed with Hume, that the attempt to justify knowledge with inductive conclusions from the experience leads to irrationalism, but denied that scientists have ever argue inductive way. He agreed with Kant that experience and observation suggests that a priori ideas, but denied that our a priori ideas reliably true. And he agreed with Wittgenstein and the positivists, . that is no longer possible to appeal to a priori true principles in an attempt to justify an empirical science, . but argued, . that the metaphysical theory does not necessarily make sense, and that may not be verifiable criterion for the demarcation of science and metaphysics, . as unable to explain the scientific nature of scientific laws, . that, . being strictly universal judgments, . covering an infinite number of cases, . can not be verified with the help of inductive conclusions from the experience,
.

Here Popper cuts the Gordian knot by arguing that scientific knowledge can not be justified (and not in need of justification), it is rational, not because we find it justified, but because we are able to criticize it. Any attempt to justify knowledge must, in order to avoid infinite regress, ultimately rely on the validity (or reliability) of a claim (or ability, or personality), which needs no justification. However, the fact, . that the validity (or reliability) of this statement (or the ability, . or personality) was adopted without justification, . means, . that we endow it kind of exclusivity, . which denies the other allegations (or ability, . or individuals),
. Thus, . Unlike Wittgenstein and the positivists, . appealed to the experience of justification for knowledge, . Popper argued, . that 'the main problem of philosophy - a critical analysis of the appeal to the authority of experience, . namely the experience, . which every adherent of positivism accepts and always took for granted ',
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From the allegations of surveillance, which is detected by our experience, should never be strictly true universal statements (or theories). Therefore universal approval (or theory) can not be justified (or verified) using the experience. However, enough of a genuine counterexample to show that the universal statement is false. Thus, the observation of any arbitrarily large number of black crows can not substantiate or verify the assertion that all crows are black; observation is only one non-black ravens prove that the generalization 'all crows - black' false. Therefore some universal approval (or theory) can be criticized (or be falsified) by experience - or at least with the help of 'basic statements' (isolated allegations of fixing observation), they contradict. Popper concluded that it is the falsifiability, but not verifiable distinguishes empirical science from metaphysics. Then, . pointing to the existence of the logical asymmetry between universal and singular statements - the universal can be falsified, . not verified, . a single verified, . not falsified, . - Karl Popper showed, . that the distinction between science and metaphysics does not coincide with the distinction of meaningful and meaningless statements,
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Is the logical part of the solution of problems of induction and demarcation. However, Popper also denied that scientists generally open scientific theories with inductive reasoning, making observations and then summing them. Their theory - it is speculative invention, and they appeal to observation and experience, to test these solutions, not in order to justify them.

In this way, Popper showed that the growth of science is both empirical and rational. It is empirical, because we test our hypothetical solution of scientific problems through observation and experience. It is rational, . because we are using the correct forms of evidence, . derived from deductive logic, . especially modus tollens, . to criticize the theory, . contrary to the assertions of observation, . believe that true, . and because, . that we can never conclude a successful test of the theory, . thus proved its validity,
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Scientific knowledge, according to Popper, internally imperfect and always suspected. Its growth is not due to a justification of theories, but in the course of criticism of speculative hypotheses that are proposed as solutions of the problems facing us. The truth of scientific theories can not be proven, they should not be regarded as having some sort of justification or confirmation. However, this inability to justify the knowledge does not necessarily lead to irrationalism, . because we can always criticize our theory, . checking their predictions on the experience, . and since this check is to use only the correct deductive conclusions.,
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Karl Raimund Popper (Popper Karl Raimund), photo, biography
Karl Raimund Popper (Popper Karl Raimund), photo, biography Karl Raimund Popper (Popper Karl Raimund)  British philosopher of Austrian origin., photo, biography
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