Piero della Francesca (Piero della Francesca)( Italian painter, one of the greatest masters of the early Renaissance.)
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Biography Piero della Francesca (Piero della Francesca)
Born between 1406 and 1420 in Borgo San Sepolkro in Umbria (now - the north-eastern part of Tuscany). The absence of any information on his artistic activities in 1439 to 1444 makes it impossible to trace the first steps of Piero della Francesca in the art. Until the late 1430's - early 1440-ies Renaissance influences are not felt in Arezzo - one of the largest cities in Umbria. However, in 1439 through contacts with the art of Florence Piero got acquainted with the system of linear perspective, . invented and designed by Brunelleschi, Alberti, Donatello's sculpture, . Michelozzo and Luca della Robbia, and established their new style, the art of Masaccio, . which combines the laws of linear perspective with ancient tradition to create forms with dramatic power, . bold foreshortening and modeling karnatsii with sharp black shadows,
. Masaccio's influence predominates in the early works of Piero della Francesca, for example in the altarpiece Madonna della Misericordia commissioned in 1445 the Brotherhood of Mercy Borgo San Sepolkro (San Sepolkro, State Museum).
Artist from a small town, to 16 in. not fallen into the sphere of cultural influence of Florence, Piero readily studied with masters from other cities. We Domenico Veneziano, . the formation of which, . in turn, . influenced international Gothic style, . presented in the Veneto creativity Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello, . Piero della Francesca learned the transfer of naturalistic lighting and chiaroscuro, this technique formed the basis of powerful poetic realism of his works,
. Impressionistic motifs in the treatment of leaves, . borrowed artist, . perhaps, . by Domenico Veneziano, . in his later works, . written under the influence of Flemish paintings, . became one of the earliest in Western European art attempts to produce images with light light,
Despite the fact that Piero has always maintained a close relationship with his family and hometown, with approximately 1,446 to 1454 he worked at the courts of the rulers of Pesaro, Ferrara and Rimini, Bologna, Ancona and Loreto. This period dates from one of his finest paintings - Castigate Christ (Urbino, . National Gallery of Marche), . in which the figure and the surrounding architecture built with strict observance of proportions, . all geometrically calibrated and shown in accordance with the laws of linear and aerial perspective (which changed only in the group with bichuemym Christ for the production of semantic emphasis tracks),
. In other paintings, created in this period, such as SW. Jerome (1450, Berlin State Museum) and CB. Jerome with the donor of (s. 1452, Venice, Gallerie dell'Accademia), first appears landscape. It caused noticeable in Florentine painting under the influence of northern art trend towards greater realism in the construction of the composition and transmission components, the use of aerial perspective and panoramic views. In Ferrara the artist wrote have not survived to the present day murals commissioned by the brothers and Bars Leonello d'Este. The collection Leonello were paintings by Rogier van der Weyden, . which undoubtedly brought in Piero interest in the Flemish technique of oil painting, . to methods of transmission of light and impressionistic interpretation of gold embroidery and lace, . so masterly artists depicting 15 in,
. the rich characters in their costumes pictures. Imitation of Flemish technique and impressionistic interpretation of the illuminated objects appear already in the portrait Sidzhizmondo Malatesta, the ruler of Rimini (1451, Louvre).
In the period from 1446 to 1454 Piero created a style that in its main features is preserved in the works already belonging to the period of his creative maturity. It is characterized by arbitrariness in the image of hair and eyes (the famous almond-shaped eyes that are derived from the characters Domenico Veneziano) and the idealization of facial. High figures are built on the classical canon of proportions of Vitruvius, but the female characters are elongated, slightly curved neck and high foreheads - elements of a Late ideal of beauty. In modeling karnatsii Piero della Francesca prefers soft tones, smooth transitions as opposed to sharp and dark shadows, which resorted in their works by Masaccio. In Castigate Christ Piero reluctance to depict rapid, abrupt or repetitive motion. This is primarily due to his temperament, but it also played a role the study of ancient sculpture. The main effect, actually flagellation of Christ, shown on the left in the background, while the front right face frozen in a posture with his back to what is going on three characters. The torturers of Christ seem impassive, motionless in their motion, as if the participants 'living pictures'. In the pictures from a strictly canonical iconography of Piero della Francesca suggested that the original color palette, giving preference to the use of cold colors, and especially the large number of shades of blue
. In the courts of the rulers-humanists in Ferrara, . Pesaro and Rimini Piero della Francesca acquainted with the culture, . main aspiration which was the revival of antiquity and the use of its achievements in all spheres of human activity, . of letters and handwriting to the Fine Arts,
. Under the influence of this interest antiquity Piero was used in his paintings classical forms, especially in the architectural backgrounds. Despite numerous attempts to understand the methods of construction of architectural and landscape backgrounds in Piero della Francesca, in his paintings could not find the consistent application of the geometric module or system promising constructions. Rather, . can prove, . that Pierre used the compositional principle, . dominated Florentine painting in the mid 1430-ies: sequential reduction in the size of figures from the front to the background, the figures of the first plan also determine the size of the columns depicted buildings,
. Ancient architecture with Pierre combines the solidity, clarity and nobility of form with graceful ease of ornament. Buildings are often incomplete within the picture plane, part of them as if cut off by the framing of the canvas frame.
The formation of the style of Piero della Francesca mature period was influenced by classical sculpture, which he saw in Rome. His only witness a document a trip to Rome took place in September of 1458-1459, when by order of Pope Pius II, he painted two murals in the halls of the Vatican Palace. According to Vasari, . Piero della Francesca worked for Pope Nicholas V (1447-1454); should, . It was during this trip met with the master works of ancient sculpture, . perfect knowledge of which he demonstrates in the picture Baptism of Christ (London, . National Gallery) and in the cycle of frescoes of the Legend of the Holy Cross (Arezzo, . Church of San Francesco),
. In this painting, The Baptism, written probably about. 1453, Christ is depicted standing in the blue waters of the river, which affect people on shore - a clear imitation of the Flemish masters. In the fresco The Battle of Constantine Maxentius from the church of San Francesco in Arezzo by Piero della Francesca repeats the motif of reflection. Both here and in the baptism forms a wide panorama of the landscape and built strictly according to the laws of perspective, some form of vague, like Masaccio and Masolino, and shown in the light of aerial perspective, the knowledge which he has drawn from Flemish painting.
In 1453 or 1454 Piero della Francesca was commissioned to fresco for the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. This is the most famous works by the master. Plot frescoes - the history of gaining life-giving tree of the Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. The walls are subdivided into three registers. On the back wall shows two of the Prophet. In the lunette the right wall before the death of Adam, which grows over the grave of a holy tree. Next - the Queen of Sheba came to Solomon, worships Tree, from which the threshold is made, foreseeing the future in him the image of the Cross. The next episode - the vision of the Cross to Constantine and his victory over Maxentius. In the second tier of the left and rear walls represented the acquisition of the Cross by Empress Helena: it indicates the place, . where the buried crosses, . which were executed by Christ and two thieves, . and she miraculously finds, . which of the three crosses of Jesus Christ was crucified,
. The scenes of this famous fresco cycle does not constitute a strict chronological sequence, and consistent with each other in meaning, establishing consistency between the various episodes in the history of gaining Cross.
Piero della Francesca has big songs, emphasizing the situation and actions of characters with spatial intervals of light and color accents. Plastic forms and spaces skillfully countered in the frescoes, located on opposite walls. Contrast different kind is achieved by comparing the two battles: horse attacks Constantine and melee troops of Heraclius and Chosroes. In the scene Vision Cross Constantine used the effect of night lighting. Perhaps before leaving for Rome in 1458 by Piero della Francesca fresco executed Sunday at the Town Hall Borgo San Sepolkro currently in the City Museum.
In 1469 Piero della Francesca finished work on the altar, created by order of the brotherhood of St.. Augustine in the Borgo. The altar was split apart in 17., And so far have survived only four boards with images of saints: St.. Augustine in the Lisbon National Museum, St.. Michael in the London National Gallery, St.. John the Evangelist in the Frick Collection in New York and St.. Nicholas Tolentinsky Museum Poldi Pezzoli in Milan. Figures combined klssicheskim parapet and a landscape background. Around 1469 Piero created another altarpiece for the Franciscan convent of Sant Antonio in Perugia (Milan, Brera). The altar has a Gothic frame, but the placement of four saints around the Madonna on the throne freer than in other compositions of this type. In the subtleties of design and beauty of color is - one of the most successful works of the artist.
Around the mid 1460-ies Piero della Francesca worked at the court of Federigo da Montefeltro - graph, and since 1474 the Duke of Urbino. By order of the Duke was written by the famous diptych with a portrait of Federigo and his wife, Battista Sforza (Florence, Uffizi Gallery). They are depicted in a landscape as seen from the bird's-eye view (a trait typical of Flemish painting). In the allegorical compositions on the reverse side of portraits of each spouse is represented sitting on a triumphal chariot, also in a landscape. The portraits were created in memory of Battiste Sforza after her death in 1472. Besides, . Federico da Montefeltro commissioned by Piero della Francesca altarpiece (Milan, . Brera gallery) to rebuild them to the Franciscan church of San Donato, . later renamed the San Bernardino, . where he is shown kneeling before the Virgin,
. Virgin escorted holy, so calm and still, that their figures seem to be part of the majestic walls rising behind their backs
. The most recent of the surviving works of Piero della Francesca - Madonna di Senigallia (1478-1490, . Urbino, . National Gallery), . written for his daughter and son-Frederick, . and poorly-preserved picture of the Nativity (London, . National Gallery), . written master, . obviously, . app,
. 1484 for his family. The last significant influence of Flemish art, in particular Portinari Altar Hugo van der Goes (Florence, Uffizi Gallery), brought to Florence in 1483.
At the age of Piero della Francesca left a painting, apparently because of the deterioration of vision, and turned to mathematics. The most significant of his mathematical treatises, intended for artists and scholars - about the future of painting (De prospectiva pingendi). Died Piero della Francesca in Borgo October 12, 1492.