Francois Rabelais (Rabelais Francois)( The largest representative of the French literature of the Renaissance, the celebrated author of satirical tales of Gargantua (Gargantua) and Pantagruel (Pantagruel).)
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Biography Francois Rabelais (Rabelais Francois)
(ca. 1494 - ca. 1553)
Born, allegedly some scientists, in 1483, to convince others - in 1494, the second opinion was the majority of biographers. It was believed that his father was an innkeeper, but this legend has long been refuted: he was a judicial officer, ie. belonged to the educated middle class, which so many must the French Renaissance. Antoine Rabelais belonged to Touraine land near Chinon, in one of his estates, Ladeviner, and was born Franц¬ois.
It remains unclear how and the reasons why he is such an early age (probably in 1511) entered the monastery. Mysterious and motives that forced him to give preference to the Franciscan monasteries. These monasteries at that time remained aloof from the humanistic aspirations and even the study of Greek was considered a concession heresy. Sympathetic humanism Bishop Geoffrey d'Estissak from a nearby Benedictine abbey Maleze taken in by his secretaries and his friend Franц¬ois Pierre Ami.
In 1530, remaining in the clergy, Rabelais appeared in the famous medical school in Montpellier, and after six weeks was ready to hold examinations for the Bachelor's - no doubt that the medicine he worked in the past. Two years later he became a doctor in the city hospital in Lyon. At the time, Lyon was a major center of book trade. At fairs among the popular books can be found alterations of the medieval romances about the deeds of the giants and all sorts of miracles, such as Big chronicles (author unknown). The success stories of this family of giants led Rabelais take for his own book. In 1532 he published a terrible and horrific acts and glorious deeds of Pantagruel (Horribles et espouantables faicts et prouesses du tres renomm Pantagruel). Keepers of the orthodox dogma, including the Sorbonne, the theological faculty of the University of Paris, the book was immediately condemned by. In response Rabelais removed several vehement expressions (like 'Sorbonne ass') and, put the old fables, wrote a satire will therefore leave no doubt about his intentions in the future. It was a book of Gargantua, 'father of Pantagruel'. Giants stayed in it, as were numerous echoes of the skirmishes that took place in 1534. At that time, many of the friends of Rabelais were imprisoned, expelled or had expected a worse fate. Exercised great influence diplomat Jean du Bellay, . Cardinal and Minister in Rome, . Several times he took with him to Rome Rabelais and made from the pope full pardon for those sins against the church discipline, . that his friend admitted in the old days (Absolution 17 January 1536),
Until 1546 Rabelais wrote little: a lot of time was taken up by work on the essays submitted for a doctoral degree obtained in 1537. A case when they were intercepted by his letter and the time he retired in Chambery. The third book (Tiers Livre), describing the new adventures of Pantagruel, was condemned as the previous. Came to the aid of high friends. Cardinal Du Bellay has to Rabelais parishes in St. Maarten de Meudon and Saint-Christophe de Jamba. Cardinal Odet de Chatillon received royal approval for the publication of the Fourth Book (Quart Livre), which did not prevent the Sorbonne and the Paris Parliament to condemn it as soon as she came out in 1552.
In his writings of Rabelais demonstrates the exceptional richness of tone - from the message Gargantua to his son (Pantagruel, ch. VII) to such places, when even the title is hardly reproducible without gaps, denoted by points. Originality Rabelais vividly manifested in all its unusually colorful and lush style. In his writings on medicine, yet the influence of Galen and Hippocrates. One of the most well-known French physicians, he largely owes his reputation to the fact that he was able to interpret the Greek texts, as well as anatomical sessions, to some extent boded methods of laboratory studies. Not to mention especially the original and its philosophy. Instead, the writings of Rabelais - a true find for the diligent amateur establish sources and borrowing. Often the narrative takes only a few lines, and the page is almost completely filled with notes. This comment, partly linguistic, scientists were the sources of the common speech, including dialects, jargon of different classes, as well as Greek and Latin - common in that era tracings.
Gargantua and Pantagruel called novels. Indeed, their composition was greatly influenced popular at the time of chivalry. Rabelais, too, starts with the birth of his hero, who, of course, is born 'a very strange manner'. Then traditionally are chapters on his childhood and upbringing in the adolescent years - to bring the hero as adepts of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Educating for the latter causes the author only enthusiasm, education is in the spirit of the Middle Ages - one of contempt. When Gargantua confiscates the bells of Notre Dame, the Theological Faculty at the University of Paris sent a delegation to him to get them back. Led this delegation Master Janotus de Bragmardo described with an evil sneer. In sharp contrast with the weak-minded old man is well educated, bright mind Gargantua, whose appearance is as immaculate as his Latin. Among his assistants probably the most interesting - his brother Jean, very similar to the fat brother of ballads of Robin Hood. Friar John - the embodiment of ideal, close to the heart of the author, how close it was, and Erasmus of Rotterdam: a monk, not reckless living, active life, able to stand up for their abode in word and deed.
In Pantagruel, Gargantua for the next (though it is printed earlier), drawing from folklore, which form the story is much clearer. The hero-giant, possessed a thirst for adventure, just moved to the story of the cheap popular books sold at trade fairs in Lyon and Frankfurt. His birth is also 'a very strange way' and described by many obstetric details. Equally colorful narrative of how it has grown enormous size miracle of nature, but gradually the focus begins to pay by intellectual aspirations in the spirit of the Renaissance. Indicative scene dating from Panurge, . which recommends a, . uttering speech in many languages, . - Episode, . carefully calculated to provoke laughter from the audience, . belonged to the humanist, . where they could find it difficult to German, . but the distinction between the Greek and Hebraic, . If the speaker has demonstrated 'true gift of rhetoric',
. In the same book (Chapter VIII) we find written in the style of Cicero a letter to Pantagruel, demonstrating how passionately believed then people in a new era.
Appearing in the narrative, Panurge will remain there until the very end. The third book is constructed so that it is constantly in the center of the action, arguing that the topic of the economy (the benefits of debt), then women (whether he should marry her?). When the story comes to marriage Panurge, Rabelais forces him to seek advice then one character, then another, so that in the case involving different groups of people. Their views are not always convincing, and Panurge decides to take the advice of the oracle of the Divine Bottle, so the book ends on a note and ironic, and bitter
. The fourth book is fully reserved for the trip Pantagruel, . represents both a pilgrimage in medieval style, . and the Renaissance experience of knowledge, . partly in imitation of Jacques Cartier, . describe their journey, . or the numerous 'cosmography' the time,
. The combination of medieval and Renaissance elements in the novel should not surprise the reader. The same ambivalence is inherent and other details of his narrative. The journey begins with the evangelical, almost Protestant ceremony, but on the other hand, we have an old habit of giving names to various allegorical islands, visited by the expedition (as the island Papemanov and Papefigov). In order that the geographical imagination has not dried up, even the names are taken from the ancient Hebrews, for example, the island Ganabim (the set. number of words ganab - thief). Strange, . that resourceful and resilient Panurge is gradually becoming malosimpatichnym character, . as, . example, . famous scene in the storm at sea, . when he behaves like a coward, . Unlike his brother, Jean, . with his firmness of mind, . ownership situation and knowledge of maritime affairs,
In the fourth book of the trip is not completed. The fifth book ends with the scene of the oracle of the Divine Bottle, whose mysterious word interpreted as 'Trink', ie. as an invitation to drink from the cup of knowledge. Thus, the finale of the whole work takes an optimistic tone - the characters are full of hope that in front of a new era.
The fifth book appeared in two versions soon after the death of Rabelais. The debate about how, not whether it is fake, being long. The fact that the fifth book can not be unequivocally recognized as a creation of Rabelais, complicates the understanding and appreciation of his views. Even in those parts of the work, about which there is no doubt about the authorship, it is difficult to judge what was the author's attitude to religion. Nowadays, it is assumed that he was a follower of Erasmus, ie. wanted church reforms, but not separation from Rome. The hostility to monasticism is due not only aversion to asceticism, but tense at the time the controversy, which was within the monasteries between the adherents of humanism and the zealots of the medieval orders. On this controversy Rabelais thought, sarcastically describing the library of the monastery Sv.Viktora (Pantagruel, Chapter VII), in which the shelves lined with books with comic titles (like 'Bashmakov patience').
In recent years, Rabelais shrouded. Probably never will find out why he abandoned his parish soon after, as they received. Nothing authentic is known about his death, in addition epitaphs poets Tayuro Jacques and Pierre de Ronsard, the latter sounds strange and not complimentary in tone. Both epitaph appeared in 1554. Even the place of burial of Rabelais did not say exactly. Traditionally it is believed that he was buried in the cemetery of St. Paul's Cathedral in Paris.