Frank Lloyd Wright (Wright Frank Lloyd)( American architect, founder of the so-called 'organic architecture'.)
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Biography Frank Lloyd Wright (Wright Frank Lloyd)
In their buildings sought to establish harmonious elements of architectural composition, the use of traditional materials to construction sites and, most importantly, to achieve the connection between the building and the environment. Wright was engaged mainly in designing residential. There are two of the most fruitful period in his work: from 1901 to 1909 and from 1936 to early 1940's. In the early period, as opposed to then fashionable Victorian architecture, Wright has created several mansions, TN. 'prairie houses', characteristics which have been arranged horizontal rows of folding windows and flat, slightly overhanging roof. In 1930 he developed a type of house for a family of moderate means dominated parts produced by the factory method. Wright also used the large glazed surface and 'open' interiors, where the kitchen, dining room and formed one single space.
Wright was born June 8, 1867 in Richland (pc. Wisconsin). After studying a year at the University of Wisconsin, in 1887, he enlisted in the architects 'Denkmar Adler and Louis Sullivan', one of the most famous in the U.S.. From Sullivan, he took a number of fundamental concepts for architectural design. In 1893, Wright opened his own studio in Chicago. During these years until 1901 he built a sturdy house, mostly in the eclectic style, and then moved on to create the projects 'prairie houses'. Largest of his work 1890 - Winslow House in River Forest (pc. Illinois, 1894), for the time surprisingly simple in form construction.
'Prairie Home' is quickly gaining popularity. In 1901-1909 Wright has created about 120 projects and has built 76 such homes. Most of them were intended for businessmen and the middle class and were located in the rapidly growing suburbs of Chicago. Two of the best buildings of this period are considered Robie House (Chicago, 1907) and the estate Kunle (Riverside, pc. Illinois, 1908). Models and photos of buildings, made by Wright, often exhibited at various exhibitions, and in 1907 he had his first solo exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Along with the architectural work he played with public lectures and wrote a lot; in 1932 saw the publication of his autobiography (reprinted with additions in 1943). Also in 1932 he proposed a 'city wide open space' model of an ideal rural community, and in his estate Teylizin West organized Teylizinskoe Association (later the School of Architecture FL Wright).
In 1936, Wright completed the three brilliant project. The first of them - Jacobs House in Madison (pc. Wisconsin) - attempt to create a comfortable residential building for people of moderate means. The second project - the company's head office 'Johnson Ueks' in Racine (pc. Wisconsin) - a building without windows, size 69? 69 m. And the third - Private 'house over the waterfall' ( 'Folling-Water') in Ber-Run (pc. Pennsylvania), which has been called by critics the most remarkable residential building 20 in. In 1938, Wright has created another product, which became a milestone in the development of modern architecture - a new school-workshop in Scottsdale (pc. Arizona), known as 'Teylizin West'. With its creation were used local stone, beams of red wood and canvas roof. In the past 23 years life of the architect were the embodiment 180 of the 400 projects created by them, but only for 72 years of his creative work he designed and built approximately 800. 400 buildings. Wright died in Phoenix (pc. Arizona), April 9, 1959
. Wright belongs to several public buildings, particularly office buildings Larkin Building in Buffalo (1904, not preserved), which first used air-conditioning, built-in metal furniture and hermetic isolation interiors
. Creating paired monolithic cubes of the Temple of Concord in Oak Park (pc. Illinois, 1905-1906), Wright for the first time in the history of architecture left rough concrete surfaces. One of the most difficult tasks with which he performed admirably, it was seismic design of the hotel building 'Imperial' in Tokyo (built in 1917-1922, dismantled in 1968). Thanks console suspension floors and powerful 'floating' foundation, departing in the thickness of the soil at 18 meters, this massive building has withstood during the earthquake 1923.
Among the most famous buildings include the building of the Museum of Wright's Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. Projects of the museum appeared in 1943, but construction only started in the late 1950's. The building is a spiral ramp to the growing upward turns, covering the transparent dome of light blocked Yard. Architectural volume Temple Beth Shalom, near Philadelphia (1954) formed by two set each other by triangular prisms, which form a hexagon in plan - the outline of a Star of David. Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church near Milwaukee (1956) is scyphiform Hall of thin high piers. Light and elegant public buildings in the center of the County of Marin San Rafael (1957-1959) spread over three hills area of 121 hectares.
In his later years Wright has published dozens of articles, he united the most important of his published works of the 1930's in the book The Future of Architecture (1953). Then came the book Natural House (1954), Will (1957), as well as the revised draft 'of the city wide open space' - the Living City (1958).