John Ruskin (Ruskin John)( The English writer, art critic, advocate of social reform.)
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Biography John Ruskin (Ruskin John)
Born February 8, 1819 in London. Parents were D.Dzh.Reskin Ruskin, one of the owners of the company imported sherry, and Margaret Cook, the husband had a cousin. John grew up in an atmosphere of evangelical piety. But the father loved art, and when the boy turned 13 years old, the family traveled a lot in France, Belgium, Germany and Switzerland, especially. Ruskin studied drawing at the British artists Copley Fielding and Dzh.D.Hardinga and became a skilled draftsman. He depicted mainly architectural objects, particularly admiring the gothic architecture.
In 1836 Ruskin entered Christ Church College, Oxford University, where he studied geology at the William Buckland. At 21, his father gave him generous content, and they both began to collect paintings Dzh.Ternera (1775-1851). In 1839 Ruskin Nyudigeytskaya was awarded the prize for best poem in English, but in the spring of 1840 to further his education at Oxford was interrupted because of illness, he started bleeding, what doctors saw symptoms of TB.
In 1841 Ruskin began to supplement written by him in seventeen years writing in defense of Turner paintings. The result was a five-volume work Modern Painters (Modern Painters), the first volume of which appeared in 1843.
The spring of 1845 he undertook a journey through Switzerland to Lucca, Pisa, Florence and Venice, first journeyed without parents, accompanied by a servant and an old guide from Chamonix. Left to itself, it is almost free from the prejudices of the Protestant and experienced boundless enthusiasm for the religious paintings of Fra Angelico to Z. Tintoretto. He expressed his admiration for the second volume of modern artists (1846).
Intently studying Gothic architecture, Ruskin in 1849 published an essay seven lamps of architecture (The Seven Lamps of Architecture). Typical for Ruskin moral rigor in the spirit of Victorian England, his ideas about 'architectural integrity' and the origin of natural ornamental forms remained influential than one generation.
Ruskin then turned to the study of Venetian architecture. He and his wife spent two winters in Venice, collecting material for the book Stones of Venice (Stones of Venice), which intended to give a more specific rationale outlined in the Seven lamps of ideas, especially their moral and political aspects. The book appeared in the midst of raging in London, 'Battle of styles', because the happiness of the working man proclaimed in the book one of the components of Gothic Beauty, . it became part of the supporters of the Gothic Revival, . headed by William Morris,
Returning to England, Ruskin defended the Pre-Raphaelites, whose exhibition at the Academy in 1851, was received with hostility. Ruskin became friendly with D. E. Millais, the youngest and the most striking pre-Raphaelite. Soon Milles and his wife Effie Ruskin fell in love with each other, and in July 1854, achieving divorce from Ruskin, Effie married Millais.
Some time Ruskin taught drawing in the Workers' College in London, fell under the influence of Carlyle. Yielding to the insistence of his father, Ruskin continued to work on the third and fourth volumes of contemporary artists. In 1857 he gave lectures in Manchester, The Political Economy of Art (The Political Economy of Art), later published under the title The Joy forever (A Joy for Ever). From the scope of his interests in art largely moved to the area of social transformation. Further development of this topic has received in the latter book, as the first (Unto This Last, 1860), marking the maturity of the political and economic views of Ruskin. He fought for reform in education, especially in the handicraft, for global employment and help the elderly and disabled. In the latter book that first put the spiritual crisis Ruskin. Starting from 1860 he constantly suffered from nervous depression. In 1869 he was elected the first Honorary Professor of Art at Oxford University. At Oxford, he worked hard, prepared for students of art collection of originals and reproductions. In 1871 Ruskin began producing a monthly publication 'Fors Clavigera', addressed to the workers and toilers of Great Britain. In it, he shall notify the establishment of the Company of St.. George, . whose mandate was to create on marginal land, workshops, . which would be applicable only to manual labor, . and open working of such places, . as Sheffield, . beauty of handicrafts and gradually reverse the devastating effects of the Industrial Revolution, 18-19 centuries,
By the late 1873's state of mind was affected by Ruskin in his lectures. In 1878 he shattered a severe and prolonged mental illness. However, the memory of him has not changed, and his last book, an autobiography The Past (Praeterita, 1885-1889), was perhaps the most interesting of his work. Ruskin died in Brantvude (North Lancashire) 20 January 1900.