REED, Thomas (Reid Thomas)( Founder of Scottish realism, or the philosophy of 'common sense'.)
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Biography REED, Thomas (Reid Thomas)
Born in Stronie (Scotland) 26 April 1710. He was educated in Marishal College, University of Aberdeen, who graduated in 1726, then worked at the University librarian for 10 years. In 1737-1751 was a minister of the Presbyterian Church. In 1751-1764 professor of philosophy at King's College, University of Aberdeen, in 1764-1780 professor of moral philosophy, University of Glasgow (as successor to Adam Smith). Reed died in Glasgow on Oct. 7, 1796.
Reid is known for his realist theory of sensory experience. With this theory, he sought to overcome the skepticism of Locke (and Descartes), in extreme form, expressed in empiricism and skepticism of Hume. Weak point Hume's philosophy Reid considered his 'theory of ideas'. Hume believed that in terms of philosophy there is no justification for beliefs 'vulgar' kind, according to which we perceive material objects and the very real connection between these objects. Reed replied that the basic beliefs of common sense, with all the critical attitude towards them, must be separated and philosophers. For Hume, all the impressions belong to the sphere of human consciousness of the perceiver. According to Reed, the perception is always' an object that is different from the act of perception ... existing regardless of whether perceived or not '. Feelings involve material objects. However, Reid was unable to consistently hold their position. Sometimes he talked about feelings only as 'Signs' of external objects, thereby re-exposing themselves to the ravages of Hume's criticism. But even then, he defended realism, arguing that the simple act of consciousness involves judgments that are outside the mind, and put forward a bold idea that these judgments are vital and self-evident. According to Reed, . 'common sense' - a special ability of the mind and a set of principles and judgments of the theoretical and practical kind of, . that can not be derived from experience and that is heaven-sent (eg, . Faith in God, . capita, . causality, . existence of the external world, etc.),
. These self-evident principles are the basis of all intelligence and all science. Reid distinguished between 'necessary truths' and 'empirical truth' in each of these types - the first principles, among the first principles of the first kind he calls the logical axioms and mathematical axioms and first principles of morality and metaphysics. As an example of the principles of the second kind can be cited as follows: 'In reality there are things that we clearly perceive through our senses, they are what we perceive them'. Reed held the position of a natural (naturalistic) realism, the 'pin' realism, based on the logical conclusion from the experience.
In ethics Reed thought that consciences directly and immediately points out what is right and decent, so the mind is only required in order to achieve the goals already identified the moral sense of man
. Reed's philosophy is described in three books: The study of the human mind according to the principles of common sense (An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense, . 1764), . Experiments on the intellectual abilities of man (Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, . 1785), . Experiments on the active human ability (Essays on the Active Powers of Man, . 1788),
Eden Reid held a dominant position in British philosophy (mainly their representative in the 19. was William Hamilton), until they were driven by idealism of Kant and Hegel. They were picked up in France P.Ruaye-Collard and B. Cousin in the U.S. - James Makkoshem and Noah Porter.