Rozhkov Nikolay( Russian historian, leader of the revolutionary movement.)
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Biography Rozhkov Nikolay
Born on October 24 (5 November) 1868 in g.Verhoture province of Perm in an impoverished noble family. In 1890 he graduated from the History Department of History and Philology of Moscow University. As a student, participated in the revolutionary 'riot'. In 1891-1897 he taught Greek and Latin grammar school in the Perm. In 1896 passed the Master (candidates) exam, and in 1899 defended his thesis Agriculture Muscovy in the sixteenth century. (in the same year published a book and presentation of the dissertation opponent Kluchevsky received great Uvarov Prize). In the dissertation on the extensive documentary material for the first time in the national historiography, the agrarian crisis in the agriculture of Russia in the second half of the 16 in the. The reasons for its author saw in the reduction of sown areas, inflation, a substantial reduction in population due to oprichnina and wars, it is moved to the outskirts of the state. Later, Rozhkov wrote that in the preparation of the thesis was not actually a Marxist ', because convinced that' the economy is key to understanding politics'.
Since 1898 as a privat-docent Rozhkov began teaching at Moscow University. They were prepared by the works of towns and villages in Russian history (1902), Review of Russian history from a sociological point of view (h. 1-2, 1903-1905), The Origin of the autocracy in Russia (1906), where a large archive of material traced the development of organs of state power in the 16-17 centuries.
Rozhkov increasingly attracted by politics and journalism. However, AA Bogdanov and AVLunacharsky he took over editing the Social Democrats 'Truth'. During the First Russian Revolution in the spring of 1905 he joined the Bolsheviks, became a member of the literary group of lecturers at the Moscow Committee RSDLP, actively collaborated in the Bolshevik publications. After the defeat of the December armed uprising in Moscow Rozhkov went into hiding. Participated in the preparation of materials for the IV Congress RSDLP, which occupied a special position on the agrarian question. In 1907 he was elected a member of the executive commission of the Petersburg Committee, a member of the Central Committee RSDLP from the Bolsheviks, the representative of the Central Committee of the Social-Democratic group III of the State Duma. In April 1908 Rozhkov was arrested and, after a long imprisonment, was exiled in 1910 in Irkutsk province. In exile scientist joined the Mensheviks. As written in a reference book based on scientific philosophy (1911) Rozhkov negatively assessed pamphlet Lenin's Materialism and Empiric.
February Revolution Rozhkov met in Novonikolayevsk (now Novosibirsk), where he was elected a fellow (deputy) of the Revolutionary Committee. In March 1917 the scientist came to Moscow, took an active part in the creation of the Moscow group of the Social Democrats - 'Unionists' and the League of Agrarian Reform. In May - July 1917 served as Deputy Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, the Provisional Government. In August 1917 joined the party of Mensheviks, was elected to its Central Committee. Condemned the government for its persecution of the Bolsheviks and the attempt of the June offensive, which, in his opinion, have brought harm to the revolution.
October Revolution Rozhkov met with hostility, and praised her as anti-democratic revolution, an adventure, a forerunner of 'coming Bonapartism'. At the same time at the extraordinary Congress of the Mensheviks, together with the leaders of the party Martov and Dan FI opposed the armed struggle against the Bolsheviks. In 1919, Rozhkov, in a letter to Lenin invited him to refuse to destroy you, he said, the policy of War Communism and to introduce market relations and new economic policies 'socialist order'.
In March 1921, Rozhkov, at that time who quit active politics, was arrested. During interrogation, he said that convinced the death of Soviet power, but to fight it would not. One eyewitness said: 'Rozhkov with us on the night of 2 nd March was brought to the fortress to be shot as a' hostage 'to the Kronstadt revolt and join us for a few days in anticipation of death'. The massacre was prevented by special resolution of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, who decided to 'leaders of the Mensheviks did not shoot'. The following year, the Bolsheviks stepped up the persecution of his former teammates in the revolutionary struggle against the autocracy - the representatives of socialist parties, as well as dissidents professorship. Rozhkov was again arrested, 26 October 1922 the Politburo of the RCP (b) agreed to send scientists abroad. However, given the statement of a prominent Menshevik to withdraw from the party and his agreement to cooperate with the Soviet authorities, this decision is canceled. Lenin proposed to replace the expulsion of the border reference in Pskov on the condition to keep him under strict supervision, 'because this man is and will probably be our enemy until the end'.
Rozhkov held in Pskov, about one and a half years, he taught at the local teachers' training college, then he was allowed to return to Moscow. In the capital, has lectured at the Institute of Red Professors, the Academy of communist education, the 1 st MSU, other universities. In 1926, Rozhkov, at the suggestion Lunacharskii and MN Pokrovsky, a former classmate of his at the university, was appointed director of the State Historical Museum.
In recent years, life scientists have devoted most of his completion of a major study - twelve-Russian history in a comparative-historical interpretation (m. 1-12, 1918-1926). History of Russia appears in it as the alternation of 'organic' (evolution) and 'critical' (revolutionary) era. History of Russia, - the author wrote, referring to the approved and idealized them new economic policy of the Bolsheviks, - 'to develop large jumps whose purpose is to overcome the backwardness of Russia and the advanced Western countries. Before our eyes, and with our participation Russia again makes a giant leap forward, was a huge sacrifice, but ensuring its economic independence and future successes'.
Rozhkov died in Moscow on February 2, 1927.