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Josiah Royce (Royce Josiah)

( The American philosopher)

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Biography Josiah Royce (Royce Josiah)
photo Josiah Royce (Royce Josiah)
(1855-1916)
Born November 20, 1855 in Grass Valley (ea. California). He was educated in shortly before established the University of California, studied at Leipzig and GцTttingen universities. He received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University (1878), where he attended lectures William James and Charles S. Peirce. In the same year was appointed professor of English, University of California. Four years later, at the request of James, he was invited to Harvard University, and all 34 years of work there, he was one of his most famous professors. Royce also was president of the American Philosophical Association and the American Psychological Association. Together with his colleagues at Harvard, William James, and Dzh.Palmerom Dzh.Santayanoy have shaped the views of many well-known American philosophers. Royce died Sept. 14, 1916 in Cambridge (pc. Mass.).
Royce holds the position of absolute idealism. In his seminal work The World and the individual (The World and the Individual, 1900-1901), he begins the argument with an analysis of cognition. How did the idea belongs to the object? The idea of two distinct types of values: the internal and external. The inner meaning is, in essence, a purposeful process of translating our experience the inherent characteristics of the object. The external value is an object - such as it is in fact. All thinking is an attempt to inner values 'catch up' external and equalize themselves with. What is needed for success? As a response can result in image. Imagine a kind of mountain. Our thinking on this mountain in the abstract, it contains only a few individual characteristic features of. To make it quite certain, we must add the defining features and to clarify their relations to other things. When we include the thinking of all the features and relationships between thinking and its object there will be no differences. The inner meaning completes itself in the external value. However, to accomplish this, we find that in the end have to deal not just with a single thing, but with the system, which includes all things - a complete and reasonable integrity. This is the absolute integrity.

To Royce's Absolute - is reason. Individual human minds are the fragments, and in each there are, as in the idea, a goal that may find the final implementation only in the Absolute. These ideas Royce served as the basis for his theories of truth and error, right and wrong, society and religion. The belief is true insofar as it can enter without a correction in the wider consciousness, if it can not do this, then it is false. The act is right insofar as it can find the approval of a wider human community, to which we belong. Royce did not commit himself to any particular religion, but was a deeply religious man. Known to his 'devotion to religion' and the corresponding ethical system, under which the highest good lies in the complete devotion to man a case. The concept of the Absolute Royce for many was the only concept of God, inaccessible to the attacks 'arrogant critics' and science.

Perhaps it was from a religious point of view of his system and the most vulnerable. Royce has not explained how the end of the self can maintain their separateness in the absolute I, the perfect reason why should embody themselves in the mistakes and wrong and why in general it should embody a

. Among the major works Royce - The religious aspect of philosophy (The Religious Aspect of Philosophy, . 1885), Spirit of Modern Philosophy (The Spirit of Modern Philosophy, . 1892); concept of God (The Conception of God, . 1897); Study of Good and Evil (Studies of Good and Evil, . 1898); philosophy of devotion (The Philosophy of Loyalty, . 1908) and the posthumous work of Lectures on modern idealism (Lectures on Modern Idealism, . 1919).,


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Josiah Royce (Royce Josiah), photo, biography
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