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Rayleigh John William (Rayleigh John William)

( English physicist.)

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Biography Rayleigh John William (Rayleigh John William)
(1842-1919)
Born November 12, 1842 in Langford Grove (Essex). He received education at home. He graduated from Trinity College at Cambridge University, where he worked until 1871 as. In 1873 set up a laboratory in the family estate Terlin Place. The author of Theory of Sound (The Theory of Sound, 1877-1878). In 1879 he became professor of experimental physics at Cambridge University in 1884 - Secretary of Royal Society of London. In 1887-1905 - Professor of the Royal Institution in 1905 - President of the Royal Society of London, from 1908 - President of the University of Cambridge.
Rayleigh range of interests was very diverse: he studied the theory of vibrations (and became one of its founders), acoustics, theory of thermal radiation, molecular physics, electromagnetism, optics. Investigating the vibrations of elastic bodies, has established a number of properties of oscillating systems, in particular, first drew attention to the self-oscillation. Studied the surface waves, in 1885 predicted the existence of special waves of this kind ( 'Rayleigh waves'). Establish the relation between the phase and group velocities.

Raleigh made a great contribution to the creation of the theory of molecular scattering of light. In 1871 he formulated the law under which the intensity of the scattered light is inversely proportional to the medium 4-th degree of the wavelength (Rayleigh), explained on the basis of scattering cause a blue sky. Raleigh constructed many instruments and devices (refractometer, a differential pressure gauge, a device for measuring the volume, etc.).

In 1894, Raleigh, together with William Ramsay discovered a new chemical element - argon, determined its properties, found a place in the periodic table of elements. For this work in 1904 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1900, The energy distribution in the spectrum of blackbody temperature (Rayleigh - Jeans).

He was awarded medals B. Rumford, Copley, M. Faraday. He died in Raleigh Terlin Place (Essex), 30 June 1919.


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Rayleigh John William (Rayleigh John William), photo, biography
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