Girolamo Savonarola (Savonarola Girolamo)( Italian monk and reformer)
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Biography Girolamo Savonarola (Savonarola Girolamo)
Born in Ferrara on Sept. 21, 1452. Received gumansticheskoe education, studied medicine, theology attracted. In the youthful poems of Savonarola already visible characteristic of his concern about moral decay and depravity of the era of the church. Visiting Faenza in 1474 and listened to a sermon there, he made his life choices and in April 1475 entered the Dominican monastery in Bologna. After training there and in Ferrara, he was transferred in 1482 to the monastery of San Marco in Florence. The first public sermon there were not much success, while Savonarola changed their style and is already in 1485-1486, preaching in the small town of San Gimignano, managed to captivate his audience. In 1487 he taught at Bologna, in 1488-1489 was in Ferrara, where traveled to preach in Brescia and other cities lomabardskie.
In 1490 Lorenzo de 'Medici at the request of the philosopher and scholar Pico della Mirandola (whose friendship with Savonarola began no later than 1482) summoned Savonarola in Florence. Almost immediately after his arrival he delivered several fiery sermons, predicting disaster, punishment, lashing depravity of morals in Florence and the church, criticizing Lorenzo. Despite the warnings, he abandoned his critics. In July 1491 he was elected abbot of the monastery of San Marco and has demonstrated its independence by refusing to proceed with the expression of reverence to the Lorenzo de 'Medici, whose family rebuilt the monastery and provide it with financial support. April 5, 1492 Savonarola had his famous vision of the suspended sword of divine justice with the words' Behold, . Sword of the Lord in the land call and soon '(' Ecce gladius Domini super terram cito et velociter '), . are used in their sermons,
. A few days Lorenzo died. Savonarola, continued his preaching and began to reform the monastery of San Marco. In 1493 he achieved his independence from Lombard congregation and formed a new congregation with a Tuscan Center in San Marco.
In 1492 Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI named. The threat of French intervention, due to the request of the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza. Both of these events as if to confirm the prophecies of Savonarola. Florentines, fearing the devastating effects of oppressive policies of Piero, Lorenzo's son, appealed to Savonarola, who played an important role in the negotiations with the French king Charles VIII before and during his stay in Florence (November 1494). Loss of influence, Piero fled, leaving Florence without a government after the 60-year rule of the Medici type. In the city there was dissension in this dangerous situation of the struggle for power, Savonarola called people to reconciliation and prophesied that in a future update Florence will become a model for the whole of Italy. He managed to achieve the adoption of the republican constitution of the Venetian style and new laws against gambling, sodomy and murder. Under his influence in Florence there was a bloodless revolution. New Florence was thought of as the city of God, the head of which he proclaimed Jesus Christ. Distinguished citizens and scholars wore robes of the Dominicans, the internecine strife subsided, gangs rioting young people have turned to the sacred militia. Imbued with this spirit, the townspeople refused to traditional feasts and instead celebrated in 1496 a religious carnival, and in 1497 carried an even more spectacular burning of secular books, paintings, clothing, playing cards, etc..
Thanks to these reforms Savonarola amassed many enemies in Florence, who antagonized his father, stung terrible prophecies and sharp rebukes lzhepastyrey and the scandalous behavior of the inhabitants of the Vatican. Unable to seduce Savonarola cardinal's hat, the Pope invited him to Rome in 1495. In the second letter, in which he accused his father of false prophecies, and remove from preaching, Savonarola replied, but he continued to preach until the third letter from my father not silenced him. After a hiatus, he resumed his accusation and in the sermon on the Book of Amos attacked with furious accusations on the pope and Rome. His position in the city and outside it has become unreliable in early 1497. Florence split into supporters of Savonarola (piagnoni, cry-baby) and his opponents (arrabbiatti, frenzied). In March, agents of the Medici provoked riots. In May, Pope Savonarola excommunicated from the church. Failing to Piero to return to the city and the choice of the Signoria (city government), favorable to Savonarola, who saved his reputation and allowed him to ignore the ban on preaching. In February 1498 the patience of Alexander VI burst. He called Signoria silence the rebellious monk, but city officials did not give. Savonarola has once again defied the church by writing a letter to the Emperor, which calls for the convening church for reform.
The end was hastened by a strange event. Fra Domenico, an ardent supporter of Savonarola, received a call from one of the Franciscan monk, who proposed to establish the truth of the teachings of Savonarola test fire. On the appointed day, April 7, crowds gathered in Piazza della Signoria, to bear witness to God's court. However, a Franciscan, who challenged, did not appear. Disappointed viewers turned their anger against Savonarola. The next day, angry crowds surrounded the monastery of San Marco, Savonarola and his closest associates were detained on the orders of the new, hostile Signoria. The requirement to deliver the pope Savonarola to Rome was not enforced. 'Court' on him was to extract confessions by torture. May 22, 1498 Savonarola and his associates, Fra Domenico and Fra Silvestro, were sentenced to death. The next day they were hanged, and then their bodies were burned.