SAGAN Carl Edward (Sagan Carl Edward)( The American astronomer.)
Comments for SAGAN Carl Edward (Sagan Carl Edward)
Biography SAGAN Carl Edward (Sagan Carl Edward)
Born November 9, 1934 in New York. In 1951 entered the University of Chicago, in 1954 received a bachelor's degree in 1960 - a doctorate in astronomy and astrophysics. He worked as a lab assistant at the University of units. Indiana at the Nobel laureate, geneticist G. Muller in 1952-1953. At the University of Chicago a great influence on Sagan had H. Urey and Dzh.Koyper. In the 1960-1962 Sagan worked as an assistant in the Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago, University of California at Berkeley and Stanford University. In 1962-1968 he taught astronomy at Harvard University and worked at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. From 1968 until the end of his life was a professor of astronomy and space research at Cornell University and director of laboratories for the study of planets.
Sagan's work devoted to physics of planets, origin of life and the possibility of its existence beyond Earth. Sagan is the creator of 'greenhouse model of the atmosphere of Venus, explaining the presence of high temperature on the surface of the planet. Known to his research on the surface of Mars: Scientists have suggested the existence on Mars, large differences in elevation, explained the seasonal changes in the contrast between light and dark areas of the transfer of dust from the mountain areas in the valley and back. Discovers organic molecules in Jupiter's atmosphere.
Sagan was actively involved in space research program of Venus ( 'Mariner-2', 1962), Mars ( 'Mariner 9', 1971-1972, 'Viking-1' and 'Viking-2', 1976), Jupiter and Saturn ( ' Voyager 1 'and' Voyager 2 ', 1977-1981). He participated in experiments on modeling the formation of organic substances in the Earth's atmosphere in 1963 illustrated the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Sagan's views on the problem of existence of extraterrestrial civilizations described in the books of Intelligent Life in the Universe (Intelligent Life in the Universe, . 1966; in collaboration with Shklovskii), . Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence (Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, . 1973), . Satellite Communications (The Cosmic Connection, . 1973),
Subject connection with extraterrestrial civilizations embodied in the fiction novel Sagan's Contact (Contact, 1985; rus. translated 1994). Book Cosmos (Cosmos, 1980) became a bestseller, and established on the basis of its 13-part film saw more than 500 million. man. Book is blue speck Sagan (Pale Blue Dot, 1994) is devoted to space the future of humanity. Among his numerous awards - Pulitzer Prize for his book Dragons of Eden. Arguments about the evolution of the human brain (Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence, 1977; rus. translated 1986).
In 1979, Sagan founded the Planetary Society, which by the end of 20 in. has become the biggest association of people interested in space. In 1980, a broad public outcry led the work of Sagan and his colleagues about the possible climatic effects of nuclear war. Scientists concluded, . that these effects may be far more serious, . than previously, . as products of explosions, . rising high into the atmosphere, . will absorb the sunlight and it will lead to cooling of the atmosphere in the surface layer ( 'nuclear winter'),
Sagan's last book - a world full of demons: Science as a Candle in the Dark (The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, 1996). Sagan died in Seattle (pc. Washington, DC) December 20, 1996.