George Santayana (Santayana George)( The philosopher and writer, a representative of critical realism and the philosophy of life, a classic of American philosophy.)
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Biography George Santayana (Santayana George)
Born in Madrid on 16 December 1863, a Spaniard by birth. He was educated at the Boston Classical School and Harvard College, graduating in 1886. Within two years he studied philosophy at the University of Berlin, then returned to Harvard and finished his doctoral dissertation under the direction of James W.. In 1889 he became a teacher, and in 1907 Professor of the Faculty of Philosophy at Harvard University
. In a perfect style, . but the 'worn-out and traditional' sonnets, . written in graduate school and reprinted in a collection of poems (Poems, . 1922), . You can find evidence of its painful transition from orthodoxy to the Catholic religion, beauty and nature,
. While the aura of the Catholic tradition preserved, . theological dogma is translated into a plan and a dramatic symbol of poetic myth, . that also becomes the main theme of interpretation of poetry and religion (Interpretation of Poetry and Religion, . 1900); more than 40 years, he returned to it in his book The idea of Christ in the Gospels (The Idea of Christ in the Gospels, . 1946),
. In the sixth sonnet in the poems allegedly, . that the highest love extends beyond the object of love and embraces the universal and eternal, this theme is developed in the book of Platonism and the spiritual life (Platonism and the Spiritual Life, . 1927) and finds the final wording in the kingdom of the Spirit (The Realm of Spirit, . 1940), . one-fourth of the Kings of Genesis,
Santayana listened to his Harvard teachers and W. James Dzh.Roysu 'more with surprise than with the genuine consent', poorly understood 'Protestant combination of gravity and willfulness' (ie. subjectivity). Decades later, when both his master died, he wove for them a crown of laurel leaves and thistles in the book of nature and views in the U.S. (Character and Opinion in the United States, 1920). And in the years of graduate school, and later Santayana believed that his philosophy teacher means you can not attempt 'to describe things as they are' and at the same time 'to declare their appropriate randomly allocated human desires'. After studying abroad, he decided to create its own philosophy, 'secular religion'. In 1896 published a lecture on aesthetics - apparently the first important work in this area, which was released in the United States: The sense of beauty (The Sense of Beauty); in 1900 they were followed by a book of poetry and interpretations of religion (Interpretations of Poetry and Religion). However, the most important outcome of the first period of creativity of the philosopher was a five-volume work Life of Reason (The Life of Reason, . or The Phases of Human Progress, . 1905-1906), . monumental in scope and coverage problems, . but stylistically sharpened, . as a collection of literary essays,
. In 1910 he published a book, . of special interest to those, . who studies the philosophy of literature: Three of the philosopher-poet (Three Philosophical Poets), . in which different worldview - naturalism, . supranaturalizm and romanticism - are brilliant, . Although impressionistic analysis of Lucretia, . Dante and Goethe, . and Shelley, . Bergson and Russell,
In 1912, Santayana fulfilled long conceived plan: left Harvard, crossed the Atlantic and became a 'wandering scholar'. Lived in seclusion in England and France. In 1924 he settled in the 'eternal city'. Santayana died in Rome on September 26, 1952.
Santayana wrote many literary and philosophical works. Among them are articles on philosophical subjects, . example, . Some turns in a collection of thought in modern philosophy (Some Turns of Thought in Modern Philosophy, . 1933), . and especially his article in support of critical realism in the collection of essays on critical realism (Essays in Critical Realism, . 1921),
. It would be valuable also are the works: Egotism in German Philosophy (Egotism in German Philosophy, . 1916); English monologues (Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies, . 1922); Skepticism and animal faith (Scepticism and Animal Faith, . 1923); story Last Puritan (The Last Puritan, . 1936); three-volume autobiography and the provisions of Persons (Persons and Places, . 1944, . 1945, . 1953) and the book's power and domination: Thoughts on Freedom, . society and the state (Powers and Dominations, . Reflections on Liberty, . Society and Government, . 1951),
. From a philosophical point of view, the most important achievement Santayana is a four-work of the Kingdom of Genesis (Realms of Being, 1927-1940), in which his system was the most complete and accurate expression.
The essence of his last philosophical messages can be formulated in the following theses. Man is the inadvertent product of an infinite and dynamic flow, which can be called 'mother'. This substance is knowable with extremely narrow, human point of view, which, however, is pragmatically justified and for the most part is in our vital needs. Being dependent on the material existence, we do not necessarily have to be his slave. Matter offers itself to us in the guise of immaterialnyh, repetitive forms, or essences, florid and intricate, things turn to us what their joy, the tragic side. These entities can be regarded almost as a simple call to action, but, as our experience acquires depth, we can see in them their own timeless existence. With the help of a disinterested comprehension, empathy and contemplation of man can go beyond the limits of existence and, as in poetry, mathematics and drama of human history can be fleeting for a brief moment to stand next to the eternal.