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Nikolay Semenov

( Russian himikofizik.)

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Biography Nikolay Semenov
(1896-1986)
Born 3 (15) April 1896 in Saratov. In 1913 he graduated from the Samara real school, he entered the Faculty of Physics St. Petersburg University. From 1914 began to carry out scientific research under the guidance of AF Ioffe. In 1917 he graduated from the University, in 1918-1920 worked as an assistant in the Tomsk and Tomsk University Institute of Technology, in 1920 at the invitation of the State Physical-Technical Institute, and radiologic moved to Petrograd. In 1920-1931 - Head of Laboratory, in 1921-1928 - Deputy Director of the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute. In 1931, led by Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, organized on the basis of his laboratory, and remained its director until the end of life.
Since 1945, Semenov - Head of the Department of Chemical Kinetics at MSU. The creator of the scientific school, among his students - LB Zel'dovich, VN Kondrat'ev, Yu.B.Khariton, NM Emanuel, and many others. Elected member of many foreign academies and societies, an honorary doctor of many foreign universities.

The first work devoted Semenova ionization of atoms and molecules, the processes of condensation and removal, electricity and electrical. In 1921, Semenov (jointly with Peter Kapitza) proposed a scheme for experience on the effects of magnetic field on beam magnetic particles (known as the experience of the Stern - Gerlach). Since 1926, the interests of researchers to focus on the kinetics of gas-phase reactions, combustion and explosion. In 1928, Semenov formulated the theory of a so-called. chain of chemical reactions, and in subsequent years - a general theory of branched, degenerate-branched and unbranched chain reactions. At its base lay the notion that the active particles (atoms, radicals, excited molecules), the reaction mixture can react, the products of which are already two active particles, etc.. chain. For those of Semyonov was awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (jointly with the British chemist S. Hinshelwood). In 1963 scientists discovered chain reactions with energetic branching. Semenov's ideas have found application in the science of polymerization reactions and in the industrial production of polymers, the study of metal complex catalysis, in the study of catalytic processes in biological systems.

In 1928, Semenov formulated the critical conditions for thermal explosion under his supervision were carried out research on the application of the theory of combustion to practical problems of explosive processes. These works are now successfully continuing students in the Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka (near Moscow), the Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS.

Semenov, died in Moscow on Sept. 25, 1986.


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