Henryk Sienkiewicz (Sienkiewicz Henryk)( Polish writer.)
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Biography Henryk Sienkiewicz (Sienkiewicz Henryk)
May 7, 1846, Mr.. - November 15, 1916
Polish novelist Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz was born in the Polish town Okzheyska, now located on the territory of Lithuania, the Lithuanian-Polish family, received a knighthood in 1775, Mr.. His father, Joseph Sienkiewicz, who participated in the Polish uprising in 1831
was the owner of several small estates. His mother, Stephanie (nee Chetsishovska), came from noble families formed. Early years of the writer were in rural, . however, . when he reached school age, . economic turmoil drove his family, . which were even older brother and four sisters, . to sell the estate and move to Warsaw, . where Henrik interested in Polish history and literature and began to write prose and poetry.,
. In general, a mediocre student, he excelled in the Polish language and literature
. Particularly impressed upon him the novels of Walter Scott and Alexandre Dumas, under whose influence the young man wrote the novel 'The Sacrifice' ( "Ofiara"), the manuscript of which has not survived.
. After spending a short time a tutor in the estate of a noble Polish family,
. enrolled in 1866. at Warsaw University. Initially, he studied law and medicine, and then changing specialty, history and literature.
In 60-ies of XIX century. in Poland were mass political speech. Rebellion 1863. against the tsarist autocracy ended with the defeat of Polish patriots, . and the tsarist government stepped up its policy of Russification of Polish culture (teaching at Warsaw University was to be conducted exclusively in Russian), . as well as Poland's economic dependence on Russia,
. Polish intellectuals in response to this organized illegal national-patriotic movement, aims to counter the policy of Russification. A new, influential trend in the Polish literature emphasizing the priority of realistic works on contemporary themes, rather than the heroic novels, praising Polish history. While all these events have not had a direct effect on MS, without any attempt to arouse the reader the writer's national identity would have been impossible.
In 1871, the utterly poor, with. was forced to withdraw from the university, not by passing exams and obtaining a diploma. The following year, went written by a student, a novel C. 'In vain' ( "Namarne"), which, despite its shortcomings, has received positive feedback JцЁzef Ignacy Kraszewski, a leading Polish writer of the time. At the same time,. becoming a journalist, writing articles for several Polish periodicals, goes by the representative of the newspapers in Vienna and Paris, as well as in Ostend. By 1875. journalistic talent with. becomes generally accepted in the circles of the Polish intelligentsia. The following year he traveled throughout the U.S. to the base of the Polish community in California, . where Polish emigrants, . without reprisals, . would be free to live and work; Warsaw Gazeta Polska '( "Gazeta Polska") has agreed to pay the writer the way in exchange for a series of articles about the United States,
. S. holds in California over a year, . and, . Although a Polish colony can not, . its American coverage, . published in the Polish press from 1876 to 1878, . then published a book 'Letters from the Road' ( "Listy z podrozy do Ameryki"), . had great success.,
. Returning to Europe in 1878, with
. travels through France and Italy, lectured, wrote stories and inspired by the impressions of the American short story, printed in Warsaw periodicals and enhance its reputation as masters of psychological essay. In Italy, in 1879. He met with Maria Shetkevich, polka, which two years later became his wife. After returning to the end of 1879. in Warsaw. becomes the new editor of the daily newspaper and begins to pay attention to more ambitious literary works.
In 1884, Mr.. With the novel. 'Fire and Sword' ( "Ogniem i mieczem"), which shows the struggle of Poland to the insurgency in the XVII century. Ukraine. Although the radicals and criticized the writer of the enthusiasm for the distant past, the majority of readers praised this product for coloring and verisimilitude, and posing with. in one of the best writers in Poland. Novels 'Deluge' ( "Potop", 1886) and 'Fire in the Steppe' ( "Pan Wolodyjowski", 1888), together with the novel 'Fire and Sword' were a trilogy, consolidating the authority of the writer - the master of the historical novel. To recreate the atmosphere of the epoch with. comprehensively studied the sources on the history of the XVII century., consulted with historians, went to the place where he describes the events unfolded. In 1897. English critic Edmund Gosse said of the trilogy 'overall impression remains ... book rather strong and ambitious than the subtle and insightful. Trilogy permeated dragging feeling of melancholy ... In this great great thing is moderation, there is a feeling that should be distinguished from sensitivity '.
In 1882, Mr.. Maria's son, Sienkiewicz, Henryk Josef, and a year later - the daughter of Jadwiga. After the birth of second child of Mary's health deteriorated, and in 1885. She died of tuberculosis.
In these years. traveled. In 1891, Mr.. He travels to Egypt, Central Africa. However, the effect of his next book 'Without dogma' ( "Bez dogmatu", 1891), 'Family Polanetskih' ( "Rodzina Polanieckich", 1895) takes place in Poland throughout the century, and they are written in a psychological vein, the early novels. At the end of 1894. S. devotedly married to his talent, young Maria Romanov, but the marriage soon fell apart.
Soon after this event with. conceives the two large-scale historical novel: 'Quo Vadis' ( "Quo Vadis", . 1896) - the persecution of Christians in the times of Emperor Nero, . and 'crusaders' ( "Krzysacy", . 1900) of the epic history of the struggle of the Poles with the Teutonic Knights at the turn of the XIV - XV centuries,
. (in the U.S., this translated into a novel called 'The Teutonic Knights'). Working on the novel 'Quo Vadis'. S., as always, meticulously collecting material; visits to areas of Italy, which became the scene of famous historical events. As a result, he wrote in 1924. critic Roman Diboski, the novel is different 'grand historical panorama, rich color and detail, creative energy that gave birth to many Romans and Christians'. By 1916, the year of death of S., 'Quo Vadis', one of the most popular novels of its time, was sold only in the U.S. in the amount of 1.5 million. For copies of the book was withdrawn immediately, two French and Italian film. The novel was enthusiastically greeted by Polish and foreign criticism; about him the head of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Leo XIII.
At his home on. was so popular that in 1900. in connection with the 50 th anniversary of the writer's subscription to it has been collected enough money to buy a small estate Oblegurek near Kielce. On the occasion of the anniversary of the writer conducted a series of events, published numerous laudatory articles, not only in Poland but also in Russia. Shortly afterwards. married Mary Babskii, his cousin, and in 1905. completed the novel "On the field of glory '(" Na polu chwaly ") continued its historic first trilogy.
In 1905, Mr.. S. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for outstanding achievements in the epic' In the welcome speech, SD. VIDC, a member of the Swedish Academy, described the P. one of the 'rare geniuses who embody the spirit of the nation ... Works With. immense, and at the same time carefully thought. As for his epic style, it is different artistic perfection '. In response, the P. noted that 'each nation represented by the poets and writers ... Consequently, the Nobel Prize - a great honor not only for the author, but also for the people, the son of which he is. It has been said that Poland is dead, exhausted, enslaved, but today we have proof of her resilience and triumph '.
At the beginning of the First World War. Oblegurek left and moved to neutral Switzerland, where he works, despite the strong sclerosis in the Polish Red Cross. He died in Vevey in 1916, and eight years later his body was transported to Poland.
When life. received high marks critics from different countries in his book Essays on modern novelists '( "Essays on Modern Novelists", 1910) American critic William Lyons Phelps called it "one of the greatest contemporary masters of the realistic novel ...' J. Although currently outside Poland is widely known except that the novel C. 'Quo Vadis', the writer is still a classic of Polish literature. 'In Place. in the history of Polish literature is firm, wrote in 1968,. Polish researcher Mieczyslaw Gergelevich, he opened a new means of expression, but skillfully combined traditional techniques, which owned a virtuoso '.