Jan Sibelius (Sibelius Jean)( Biggest Finnish composer)
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Biography Jan Sibelius (Sibelius Jean)
Born December 8, 1865 in Hameenlinna (Swedish name Tavastehus) in Finland. It was the second of three children, Dr. Christian Gustaf Sibelius and Maria Charlotta Borg. Although the family supported by the Swedish cultural traditions, coming from the ancestors of the composer, he was sent to the Finnish high school. In 1885 he entered the Imperial University in Helsinki, but it did not attract the legal profession, and he soon joined the Music Institute, where he became the most brilliant student of M. Wegelius. Many of his early compositions for chamber ensembles performed by students and teachers of the Institute. In 1889, Sibelius had received a government scholarship to study composition and music theory at A. Becker in Berlin. The following year he took lessons from C. Goldmark and Robert Fuchs in Vienna.
Upon return Sibelius in Finland took his official debut as a composer: it was performed symphonic poem Kullervo (Kullervo), op. 7, for soloists, male chorus and orchestra - one of the legends of the Finnish national epic Kalevala. It's been years of unprecedented patriotic enthusiasm, and Sibelius instantly proclaimed the nation's musical hope. Soon he married Aino Jцгrnefelt, whose father was a famous governor-general, who led the national movement.
For symphonic poem Kullervo followed Tale (En Saga), op. 9 (1892); suite of Karelia (Karelia), op. 10 and 11 (1893), Spring Song (Vrsng), op. 16 (1894) and a suite Lemminkainen (Lemminkissarja), op. 22 (1895). In 1897, Sibelius participated in the competition for a music teacher at the university, but failed, after which friends persuaded the Senate to establish an annual scholarship for him in the 3000 FIM
. Noticeable influence on the early work of Sibelius had two Finnish musician: the art of orchestration he taught R. Kajanus, . conductor and founder of the Association of the Helsinki orchestras, . a mentor in the field of symphonic music was the music critic KT Flodin,
. Premiere of the First Symphony of Sibelius was held in Helsinki (1899). In this genre the composer has written 6 other works - the last was the Seventh Symphony (one-part Fantasia sinfonica), op. 105, first performed in 1924 in Stockholm. Acquired international fame thanks to Sibelius symphonies, . but popular and his Violin Concerto, . and numerous symphonic poems, . such, . a daughter of the North (Pohjolan tytr), . Night jump and sunrise (Nattlig ritt och soluppgang), . Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelen joutsen) and Tapiola (Tapiola),
. Most of the works of Sibelius for Drama Theater (of their sixteen) - evidence of his strong preference for the theatrical music: in particular, . a symphonic poem, Finland (Finlandia) (1899) and Valse Triste (Valse triste) from the music to play, brother of composer A. Jцгrnefelt Death (Kuolema); the play was first performed in Helsinki in 1903,
. Many of the songs and choral works of Sibelius is often heard in his native land, but outside it is almost unknown: it is obvious to prevent the spread of the language barrier, and furthermore, they lack the characteristic qualities of his symphonies and symphonic poems. Hundreds of piano and violin pieces and several parlor suite for orchestra even more inferior to the best works of the composer, resulting in confusion, even the most devoted fans of his talent.
Creative activity Sibelius actually completed in 1926, the symphonic poem Tapiola, op. 112. More than 30 years the music world was waiting for the composer's new works - especially his Eighth Symphony, about which so much was said, but expectations are not fulfilled. During these years, Sibelius wrote only short pieces, including the Masonic music and songs, in no way enriching its heritage. His work has been recognized mainly in the Anglo-Saxon countries. In 1903-1921, he visited five times in England, conducting his works, and in 1914 visited the United States, where under his direction in the music festival was held in Connecticut premiere of the symphonic poem Oceanides (Aallottaret). The popularity of Sibelius in Britain and the U.S. reached its peak by mid-1930. Such major British writers as Rosa Nyumarch, Cecil Gray, Ernest Newman and Constant Lambert, admired him as an outstanding composer of his time, a worthy successor to Beethoven. Among the most ardent supporters of Sibelius in the U.S. were O. Downes, . music critic of The New York Times, . and Koussevitzky, . conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1935, . when the music of Sibelius sounded on the radio in the performance of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, . students chose their composers 'favorite symphonists',
Since 1940 interest in music of Sibelius markedly decreases: there are voices who question his innovations in form. Sibelius did not create his school and had no direct influence on composers of the next generation. Nowadays, it is usually put on a par with such representatives of late romanticism, as Richard Strauss and E. Elgar. At the same time in Finland, he diverted and divert much more important role: he recognized the great national composer, a symbol of the greatness of the country.
During his life, Sibelius was awarded the honor, which had commended a few artists. Suffice it to mention the numerous streets Sibelius, Sibelius parks, an annual music festival 'Week of Sibelius'. In 1939 'alma mater' composer, Music Institute, was named Sibelius Academy. Died in Jцгrvenpцгцг Sibelius September 20, 1957.