Lucius Cornelius Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix)( The Roman statesman and general, with 82 from 79 BC - A dictator.)
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Biography Lucius Cornelius Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix)
Came from a family of patricians. As a young man was poor, but educated. In 107 BC. Sulla as questeur when Mary went to Africa to take part in the war against Jugurtha. Sulla captured Jugurtha prisoner, after which the war was completed. When the Germanic tribes threatened Italy from 104 to 101 BC, Sulla again for some time served under the command of Mary.
In 97 BC. Sulla made praetorship (second try), when he was appointed proconsul of Cilicia in Asia Minor, where coped excellently with the diplomatic and military mission, during which a first contact of Rome and Parthia. Upon his return to Rome Sulla was accused of extortion, but the trial was not held. The prosecution, however, prevented Sulla become consul, but soon broke out Social War (the revolt Samnites, Mars and other Italians), where Sulla had the opportunity to express themselves. He is very well acted against the Samnites in the south of Italy, especially in 89 BC. Largely because of this he was elected consul for 88 BC, and the Senate appointed him commander in chief in the war with Mithridates.
By this time, Roman citizenship had been granted Italic allies laid down their weapons in the Allied war. Given their large number, . great importance was the question of, . how to distribute the Allied tribes: zanesya all in one or more of the tribes (there were 35, . and each had one vote), . they actually would defeat the possibility to influence the vote on the Roman assemblies,
. The distribution of all tribes would give them an advantage in the voting. To last and sought Publius Sulpicius Rufus, one of the tribunes of 88 BC, making the bill. The consuls, Sulla and his colleague Quintus Pompeius Rufus, launched a proven weapon - sabotaged the vote, declaring the days unfavorable for Public Affairs. During the riots broke out in Sulla actually force wrested permission to vote, when it was adopted disagreeable to him and the representatives of the aristocratic party law. Another decision taken at the same command in the war with Mithridates handed Mary. Then Sylla told the troops that he led to the Allied war, and that going to war against Mithridates, that they are going to strip mining, brought them to the greatest excitement and moved to Rome. So Sulla was the first Roman general who seized his hometown. Mariantsy were dispersed, Sulpicius was killed, but Mary managed to escape.
Sulla was satisfied with the abolition of laws, held Sulpice, and went to war with Mithridates. His successes in the fight against this enemy, responsible for the deaths of 80 thousand. Latin-speaking inhabitants of Asia Minor, carved during the pogroms in 88 BC. were rather modest and limited to the Greek theater of war, where the generals of Mithridates Sulla caused a series of defeats, and plundered many Greek cities and temples. The degree of anarchy which prevailed in Rome, said the fact that when in 86 BC. against Mithridates was sent to another host, no concerted action with Sulla led by his Guy Flavius pili could not be held. Moreover, when the pili pulled himself Mithradates in nutrition (in Michiya in Asia Minor) on the Aegean coast, Sulla did not support his fleet, and Mithradates fled. Under the terms of the prisoner with Mithridates Sulla in 85 BC. world that was supposed to return their conquests in Asia Minor and to recognize itself an ally of Rome, as well as support Sulla money and supplies. Having secured peace with Mithridates, Sulla turned against fimbriae and lured him to his soldiers, after which he committed suicide. By that time Mari was already dead, but in the absence of Sulla's power in Italy, supporters held Mary, one of them, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, consul grew from year to year - in 87, 86, 85 and 84 BC. Proponents of Sulla were destroyed, he was outlawed. On hearing that Cinna was killed (84 BC), Sulla came out openly against the Rome. He returned to Italy in 83 BC, and began the first polnomasshabnaya civil war, in which the regular Roman troops fought against each other. With the help of Pompey, Crassus and other Sulla defeated mariantsev the battle at the gates of Rome, which opposed sullantsam mainly Italic allies made him master of the capital and throughout Italy (82 BC). Revenge of Sulla was terrible. Senators have not demanded an end to the killings of Roman citizens without trial, but wanted only to Sulla announced publicly, someone is going to kill. He granted the request and began posting on the forum proscription lists, which are constantly replenished (says that only they figured 4800 names).
Sulla illegally, without marking period assumed the title of dictator of the Roman constitution and reshape the way you like. He radically limited powers of tribune of the people, robbed them, the legislative initiative (and made this position unattractive, forbidding former tribunes to hold senior positions), and the supreme power in the state Senate passed. At the same time he tried to make the Senate more credible and representative, and therefore established as a requirement for entry to the Senate passage of quaestorship that could take people 30 years old. In addition, Sulla expanded Senate - from 300 to 600 members. Sulla streamlined functions and terms of staying in power for governors of provinces and reformed the judicial system by introducing 7 specialized courts. Changing the way the Roman constitution, the dictator, to everyone's amazement, abdicated from the post in 79 BC, and a year later died.
Apparently, as the most appropriate head of the Roman state Sulla did not see the monarch, but authoritative Senate. However, during the proscription he destroyed the very people who were not indifferent to the republic and the state. The brutality of Sulla may have saved his life, but taught the Romans to ensure that measure all the personal success, which Sulla first set an example. The reforms undertaken by Sulla, not much experienced it: after 8 years after the dictator's death, many of them have been abolished (except for judicial reform).