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TARLEV Eugene

( Russian historian.)

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Biography TARLEV Eugene
(1874-1955)
Born October 27 (8 November) 1874 in Kiev in a family of merchants. He graduated from the 1-th hit high school, he studied at Novorossiysk, and then at the Kiev University, where he joined the student democracy movement. Engaged in a seminar with Professor I. Luchitskaya, on the recommendation of which was left at the university to prepare for a professorship. On the eve of May 1, 1900, was arrested at the gathering on the occasion of gathering funds in favor of the strikers, and a half months spent in detention. Then he was sent to the Kherson province and Warsaw with a temporary ban on the right teaching.
In 1901 he defended his master's degree (master's) degree Public views of Thomas More to the economic condition of England of his time. Since 1903 - Assistant Professor of St. Petersburg University, where he taught (with brief interruptions) until the end of life.

On the eve of and during the First Russian Revolution gave lectures, which talked about the fall of absolutism in Western Europe and promoted the need for democratic reforms in Russia. In his political views belonged to the Mensheviks, who was friends with GV Plekhanov, was a consultant of the Social Democratic faction in the Duma, III.

Events Tarle revolution led to the idea of studying the historical role of the working class. In 1909 he published the first, and in 1911 - the second volume of research the working class in France during the Revolution. In the same year, Tarle doctorate.

Gradually, the scientific interests of the scientist increasingly focused on the study of international economic and political relations. Based on the study of documents from archives in Paris, London, Berlin, The Hague, Milan, Lyon, Hamburg, Tarle prepared first in the world of science study the economic history of Europe during the Napoleonic wars Continental System (T. 1, 1913; 2-second volume, entitled The economic life of the Kingdom of Italy in the reign of Napoleon I, was released in 1916).

Tarle, welcomed the fall of the autocracy, become a member of the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry Interim Government to investigate the crimes of the tsarist regime.

October Revolution scientist met with hostility, but refused to emigrate and take a professorship at the Sorbonne, went to work in domestic research and educational institutions. Tarle indirectly condemned the 'red terror', having published in 1918-1919, two volumes of documents on the Jacobin terror under the name of the Revolutionary Tribunal in the era of the French Revolution. Memoirs of contemporaries, and documents. Another book, The West and Russia (1918), dedicated 'memory of the martyr' ministers of the Provisional Government AI Shingaryov and FF Kokoshkina killed by revolutionary sailors in the hospital.

In late 1920, under the cruel persecution of dissident professors, Tarle was subjected to harassment. His work Europe in the era of imperialism (1927) Marxist historians have declared 'class alien', and the author - 'defender of the French and British imperialists'. January 28, 1930 Tarle had been arrested and more than two years spent in prison as an accused in two fabricated OGPU political process - 'Industrial Party' and 'All People's Union struggle for the revival of free Russia' (the so-called academic work),
. In both cases appeared as a conspirator and projected foreign minister. He was sentenced to five years of exile in Alma-Ata. There, thanks to the support of his former students and local party leader FI Goloshekin, took a professorship at the University of Kazakhstan.

In October 1932 on the orders of Stalin, who probably hoped to use Tarle as a court historian, the scientist was prematurely released from exile. He was given an apartment in Leningrad at the Palace Embankment (part of the former apartment of Sergei Witte) and Moscow (the government in the famous 'House on the Embankment'). In 1936 saw the light of the most famous and popular book Tarle, Napoleon. Stalin graciously took the book: after its exit from the author was overturned, he was reinstated at the rank of Full Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, taken away from him in 1931

. On the eve of the Great Patriotic War Tarle published a book about the invincibility of the Russian people against the aggressors - Napoleon's Invasion of Russia (1938), . biography of Talleyrand (1939), . study of popular uprisings in Paris in the spring of 1795 and Prairial Germinal (1937),
. During the war there were two volumes of the fundamental work, the Crimean War, the events of 1853-1856 and the heroic defense of Sevastopol.

In the last period of life has paid great attention to academic history of the Russian Navy, has published three monographs on the expedition of the Russian sailors: Chesmensky battle and the first Russian expedition to the Archipelago. 1769-19774 years. (1945), Admiral Ushakov at the Mediterranean Sea (1798-1800) (1945-1946), Expedition Admiral DN Senyavin in the Mediterranean Sea (1805-1807 gg.) (1954). The author has led not only many new facts about the activities of Russian naval commanders, but also embellished the foreign policy of Russia, which corresponded to the then political settings, aimed at combating the West.

Above another trilogy Tarle began to work against their will, and 'on the initiative of senior management of the CPSU (b)' (ie. on Stalin's orders), as written about it himself in the academic record of their scientific works in 1949. The theme of the trilogy was to be a struggle between Russia and the aggressors in 18 - 20 cc. It is clear that central to the trilogy of the customer assigned book about the invasion of Hitler and the glorification of his personal role in defeating the enemy. But Tarle no hurry to write politically relevant and that took up the first volume of a trilogy about the Petrine era and the invasion of the Swedes. As a result, the scientist fell into disgrace, his work, like old times once again begun to criticize the press. Book Great Northern War and the Swedish invasion of Russia was the last and was published after the death of Academician in 1958.

Tarle died in Moscow on January 6, 1955.


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