Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (Teilhard de Chardin Pierre)( French geologist, paleontologist and philosopher.)
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Biography Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (Teilhard de Chardin Pierre)
As a priest of the Roman Catholic Church, Teilhard tried to carry out synthesis of Christian doctrine and the theory of cosmic evolution. His ideas, which combine science, philosophy and Christian mysticism, were outlined in the posthumously published works had a great response and disputes.
Marie Joseph Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a distant relative of Voltaire, was born May 1, 1881 in the castle Sarsen in Puy-de-Dц¦me, near Clermont-Ferrand in the south of France. After graduating from a Jesuit college in Montjeu, joined the Jesuits in 1899. From 1901 to 1905 he studied philosophy and was preparing to become a priest in the Jesuit monastery on the island of Jersey. In 1905-1908 was in Cairo, where he taught physics and chemistry and became interested in paleontology - mammals from the Eocene epoch. In 1908 he returned to England, where he studied theology in Hastings. He became a priest in 1911. Then he was sent to Paris and trained at the Paris Museum of M. Buhl, one of the most famous paleontologists of the time. In the First World War he served in the French army stretcher-bearer.
In 1922 Teilhard received his doctorate in paleontology from the Sorbonne. In 1922-1926 he taught geology at the Catholic Institute in Paris, . but his interpretation of original sin as applied to human evolution was found to be deviant from the orthodox teachings, . and he was ordered to leave the walls of the institute and to go to Tianjin, together with E. Lisanov, . outstanding scientist-paleontologist, . also belonged to the Order of the Jesuits,
. Later in life, Teilhard spent in exile, first in China and then in the U.S..
In 1929, participating in stratigraphic work on the excavations in Chzhoukoudyane near Beijing, Teilhard was one of the scientists who discovered Sinanthropus (Homo erectus), and has received wide recognition through the analysis of this finding. Of even greater glory to him and H. Breuil in 1931 brought the discovery that the Peking Man used primitive implements and fire.
During the Second World War Teilhard continued to work in Japanese-occupied Beijing, but his actions were strictly limited. In 1946 he returned to Paris. Visited Rome and unsuccessfully tried to get permission to publish his philosophical and theological writings. Nevertheless, essays and lectures Teilhard went on the list and had a significant impact on the scientific community. In 1952 he became a member of the Foundation of Anthropological Research Wenner - Gren, New York. Teilhard de Chardin died in New York on April 10, 1955.
According to Teilhard, evolution - the space, purposeful process in which matter-energy component of the universe, progressively moving towards increasing complexity and spirituality. Particles of primitive chaos were initially in a state of infinite variety. After successive stages at which the synthesis of them, they are united in such complex entities as atoms, molecules, cells and organisms. Finally, in the human body's nervous system has reached such a degree of complex unity that appeared self-conscious, purposeful and moral responsibility of the mind. Thus, life, mind, spirit and freedom of any of the material matrix, and the man began to take the ability to consciously control our own actions. The direction and progress evident in the evolution of matter-energy, which led to the formation of the Earth and the formation of the lithosphere, was converted through the evolution of living beings in the biosphere. In turn, the biosphere, due to the evolution of intelligent beings, became the noosphere (from the Greek. nous - mind)
. Teilhard was convinced, . that evolution has not ended on the person as an individual, . but continues to the extent that, . as humanity unites in a community with increasing differentiation of individual functions and accordingly increases the degree of interdependence, . - Trend, . unusually accelerated by modern technology, . urbanization, . telecommunications and the development of computer technology,
. The global network of knowledge, research and a sense of the interdependence of people form what Teilhard called the noosphere. The evolutionary process, he graphically depicted as a 'cone of space - time', which is placed at the base of the multiplicity and chaos, but at the top - the last point of integration into a complex unity, 'Omega Point'.
For Teilhard Omega Point is God, who by sheer force of his attraction gives direction and purpose of progressively evolving synthesis. During evolution Teilhard saw the natural priugotovlenie a supernatural order specified by Jesus Christ. When in the course of evolution of matter-energy exhaust its potential to further spiritual development, . convergence space natural order and the supernatural order will lead to 'Parousia', . Second Coming of Christ, . 'unique and naivysochayshemu event, . which historically connect with the transcendent ',
Are creating God's Word (Logos), immanent in nature from the outset, there is a synthesizing power, which 'creates, bringing together', contains elements of all the more unlikely combinations against the trend of entropy. Due to the historical embodiment of Christ, the Word of God revealed its evolutionary power in the highest form - the personal love. In the sacrifice of Christ reveals God's love for man, the call turn away from sin (egocentric resistance unifying divine love), to focus on Christ, the true 'center of all the centers'. Risen, Christ continued its movement as a 'cosmic Christ' to the last pole of attraction (Omega), leading people of their own volition in organic unity with one another with the center in Christ. Thus, religious people get rid of the rule of the lowest, biological determination
. Thus, . basis and the completion of scientific cosmogony Teilhard is his theology, . permeated with a deep faith and personal piety philosopher, . his vision of the Church as a community of people, . inspired by the uplifting and obschinnopostroitelnym influence of Jesus Christ,
. The Church, therefore, is the 'vanguard evolving humanity'. However, in terms of Teilhard, the teachings of the Church is often expressed in terms of too static and dualistic worldview that is tearing the nature, history and salvation of man and the supernatural grace of God. Because the man is called to cooperate in the completion of God's creation, . faith must move your not on his flight from the matter and the history, . and the desire to reunite with God through a sacrificial dedication to the task of advancing the process of creation and the creation of a truly human community,
Teilhard left two big labor: The phenomenon of man (Le Phnomne humain, 1955) - a book, reaching out to people with a scientific turn of mind; Divine Wednesday (Le Milieu divin, 1957) - work, written for religious-oriented reader. Other works of Teilhard - the emergence of man (L'Avenir de l'homme, 1956), Flashback (La Vision du pass, 1957) and Science and Christ (Science et Christ, 1965) - are collections of essays and lectures.