Alfred Tennyson (Tennyson Alfred)( English poet, most clearly expressed his views and expectations of the Victorian era.)
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Biography Alfred Tennyson (Tennyson Alfred)
Born Aug. 6, 1809 in the family of George Clayton Tennyson, a parish priest in Somersbi (Lincolnshire), was the fourth child in a large family. Tennyson's father possessed an outstanding literary talent, but differed irascible temper, which undoubtedly left an imprint on the character of the poet's life painfully shy and touchy.
Very early showing extraordinary abilities, Tennyson spent four years in elementary school nearby town Lauth, but the basis of his education classes were home with her father. Even before reaching the age of fifteen, Tennyson wrote a poem in the spirit of W. Scott, and two plays in verse (one of them, the Devil and the Lady - The Devil and the Lady - was published only in 1930), it is easy to compose rhymed couplets, the diversity metric. In 1827, together with the brothers issued a collection of poems, two brothers (Poems by Two Brothers), blshaya of poems in the hands of Alfredo. In the same year, the unexpected generosity of his aunt enabled Tennyson to go to Trinity College at Cambridge University, where, despite the natural shyness and unsociable character, he soon separated by his talents. Becoming a member of the student literary society of Cambridge, he became close with many talented people. In 1829 received the university medal for a poem Chancery Timbuktu (Timbuctoo), written in a rather ungrateful material. In December of next year, Tennyson published a book entitled Poems, chiefly lyrical (Poems Chiefly Lyrical, 1829), which, however, remained almost unnoticed.
In the summer of 1830 with a friend Hellamom A. Tennyson through France drove the money for the Spanish rebels, but returned to England, a staunch opponent of the revolution. Father's death in February 1831 forced him to leave university and return home to help his mother. In December 1832 Tennyson published collection of poems (Poems), which included the early version of his famous works, like a lotus Eaters (The Lotos Eaters) and Lady of Shalott (The Lady of Shalott), adopted nevertheless quite cold. Late in 1837 the family moved from the town Somersbi Hai Beach near London, early next year, was engaged with the poet Emily Selwood, sister of the wife of his brother Charles. Two years later the family Selwood, lost faith in the material consistency Tennyson, broke off her engagement. In 1842, the threat of pirate editions inspired poet to publish two books of poems, first entered reworked version of his early poems, the second - the new poems in t.ch. famous Death of Arthur (Morte d'Arthur). This publication has been welcomed by the critics, but the cost slowly. In 1845 Tennyson's friends obtained for him the state benefit. Encouraged by this turn of events, Tennyson in 1847, he has published his first mature poem The Princess (The Princess) - fantasy on the theme of women's equality, and in May 1850 came In Memoriam (lat. - In memory, memory). In the poem mourning the death in 1833 Hellama, etched as the fruit of years of the poet's meditations on the great issues of love, life and death. The success of In Memoriam was a complete and rapid. Within days, he married Emily Selwood, and another four months later, Queen Victoria bestowed him the title of poet laureate.
In 1853 Tennyson moved to the Isle of Wight, where boiling passions of the drama composed Maud (Maud, 1855). He again appealed to the subjects Arturovskih legends. The cold reception accorded to his poem The Death of Arthur, made the poet in 1842 to abandon the big epic form. Now he began to cycle more or less independent Idyll, together make up an epic canvas. The first four poems under the title King idyll (Idylls of the King, 1859) have gained popularity. Last Tennyson dispelled doubts about the success of the collection Enoch Arden and Other Poems (Enoch Arden and Other Poems, . 1864), . and in 1869 came the Holy Grail and Other Poems (The Holy Grail and Other Poems) - Three new poems Arturovskogo cycle and a revised text of the Death of Arthur,
. Cycle King's Idylls completed poem Gareth and Lynette (Gareth and Lynette, 1872) and Balin and Balan (Balin and Balan, publ. 1885)
. In the same period, Tennyson turned to the poetic drama, the next ten years, determining his creative endeavors, while in 1880 the poet and released favorably greeted by a collection of poems Ballad and Other Poems (Ballads and Other Poems)
. His first play, Queen Mary (Queen Mary, 1875), clearly not intended for the stage, in mutilated form was still staged theater 'Litseum'. The failure of this production, having held out on the scene just five weeks, did not discourage Tennyson: he decided to continue to act with the laws of the scene. His next play, Harold (Harold, 1876), whose action is attributed to the time of the conquest of England by the Normans, was not delivered during the life of the poet, although blshey than the Queen Mary, suited for the stage. Some of his plays have had better luck. Thus, in 1879 his play Falcon (The Falcon) passed the 67 submissions, has been slow play Cup (The Cup, 1881). Comedy forest dwellers (The Foresters), . written on the material of the legends of Robin Hood, . enjoyed success in America and Australia, . while in England was not intended; drama Becket (Becket, . 1884), . completed a historical trilogy Tennyson, . was a favorite statement of the late H. Irving (1838-1905),
. Tennyson's career had ended in failure, a playwright in 1882 his play The promise of spring (Promise of May), in which the poet tried to combine an apology for the rural life with attacks on positivism, gaining strength in England. This failure did not influence the activity of Tennyson, the poet. In 1884 the writer was given the title of baron, and he took his seat in the House of Lords. In 1885 he released a collection of Tiresias and Other Poems (Tiresias and Other Poems), a year later - a book of poems Loxley Hall, sixty years later (Locksley Hall Sixty Years After, 1886). In 1886 the death of his younger son, Lionel, and in winter 1888-1889 the poet himself suffered a severe attack of gout, almost svedshy him to the grave. Nevertheless, in 1889, he published a collection of Demeter and Other Poems (Demeter and Other Poems). Placed in its verses, among them the famous "Departing from the shore (Crossing the Bar), almost do not bear traces of an old man's fatigue. Died Tennyson 6 oktyabrya1892.
Tennyson life remained faithful to the chosen poetic form, from the published them only a few dialogues in plays written in prose. Between his first youthful collection of the latest book of poems, Death of Oenone and Other Poems (The Death of Oenone and Other Poems, 1892), proofs of which he could see, was sixty-five years. All this time he published the poetry collections on average every three years. Not surprisingly, his literary heritage of many diverse than most other poets. After 1833 (especially after 1842) Tennyson, gradually moving away from small lyric genres, expanding his poetic horizons and appealed to the moral and philosophical issues.