Terenzo Terence (Publius Terentius Afer)( Rome ï¦ï+ï+ï¦ï¦ïTï+ï¨ÿ-ï¦ÿL.)
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Biography Terenzo Terence (Publius Terentius Afer)
(ca. 195-159 BC)
Born in Carthage, as a slave was brought to Rome, and then released. Terence became a close friend of Scipio the Younger, in whose circle included the statesmen and writers, who wanted to improve the Latin language, to give it elegance and grace. The six comedies of Terence were placed in 166-160. All of them - in the genre palliata (fabula palliata, can be translated as 'a play in Greek dress'), ie, like the works of Plautus, represented the alteration of the new Greek comedy. Girl with Andros (Andria), Samoistyazatel (Heauton timorumenos), the eunuch (Eunuchus) and brothers (Adelphoe) based on the works of Menander, Formion (Phormio) and mother-in (Hecyra) - Apollodorus. In 160 BC. Terence undertook a trip to Greece, where he died the following year (or died in a shipwreck).
Comedies of Terence is very different in spirit from the works of Plautus. Here is a little singing and dancing, no bawdy humor and slapstick elements inherent creativity of the older comedy, language less energetic and impetuous than Plautus, jokes and puns are much less. Comedy Terence - it is not exaggerating human weaknesses and amusement of the situation, and that's meaningful laugh ', which Dzh.Meredit (Essay on Comedy, 1897) considers typical of Menander and Moliere. Lacking the breadth and diversity of Plautus, Terence is working much thinner plot and characters. In the plays of Terence less mutual deception characters, following the Menander, he mostly makes the heroes do not recognize or wrong to know one another, with the recognition, of coming to a head. Fathers of the characters behave in a much worthier and wiser, and if they sometimes covers the confusion, or they can not comprehend what is happening, it always stems from the situation (Formion, Svekrov Brothers). Heterosexual Terence often displays a noble and generous, for example Fhaid in eunuchs and Vakhidy in-law. Even more unusual way of patient and devoted mother-in-law in Sostrates. A distinguishing feature of the dramatic techniques of Terence was the use of a dual story: the love story of two young men, usually brothers or cousins, are intertwined, so that the happy resolution of a novel depends on another. Dual plot is inherent in all comedies of Terence, except in-law.
One of the innovations of Terence was different than before, the use of the prologue. Plautus says in his prologues situation in which the characters are comedies, and often cheerfully asks the public about favors. Terence, on the contrary, in the prologues avoids any hint of the play, but wholly devoted to their protection from the attacks of other playwrights, especially comedy Lucie Lanuvina. Referring to the example of predecessors - Neviya, Ennia and Plautus, Terence acknowledges that enters into the comedy scenes as well from another Greek original, and defends the right of this technique, called the contamination. Partly due to the fact that the prologue does not apply to the plot, partly thanks to the skillful construction of Terence (we see this in Formione in-law), viewers are wondering about the secret springs of events.
The Art of Terence is more Greek than Roman, in his plays there is no italic color Plautus, no references to places or events Italic. Terence tried whenever possible to reproduce the thought and style of the Greek original. As Plautus, Terence had a great influence on playwrights of the Renaissance. Moliere performed rework Formiona and brothers, and through him, Terentius influenced also by British playwrights 17 and 18 centuries.
Brothers. Unlike other Roman comedies, brothers - play with the trend because it shows two opposing ways to child-rearing, as well as their implications. Mikion fathered Aeschines, the son of his brother Demei, and taught him kindness and generosity. Another son, Ctesiphon, the severity and bans raises himself Deme. The play depicts the amorous adventures and Ctesiphon Aeschines. Ctesiphon fell in love with a slave, and for brother Aeschines kidnaps a girl from pimp. Deme also believes that in love with her Aeschines, the same suspect and Sostrates, mother of a girl that actually likes Aeschines and that of his pregnant. The misunderstanding was explained, after Mikion learns the truth and convinces Demeyu come to terms with what happened. When Deme sees that his brother had made public the location of its tolerance, he playfully change their lifestyles and, showing a sudden generosity, love conquers two sons.
Svekrov. After two failures comedy was set in Rome for the third time in 160 BC. Comedy unusually serious in tone, it shows the rift, which began with the couple after the wedding. Svekrov unfairly blamed for the troubles associated with the birth of the child, whose husband refuses to acknowledge, because the wife lost her innocence before the wedding. Later discovered that her husband something and is the father of the child, and all ends happily. This comedy, . Considered the finest example of ancient 'high comedy', . is unusual in many respects: the public remains in the dark until the very end, . little humor here, . a slave, . usually the most amusing character, . by permanently removes from the scene, . so that he was denied the opportunity to understand the situation,
. Female characters differ incredible generosity and selflessness.
Formion. Formion - clever parasite (parasite), which protects a love of two cousins. First, it helps first deceiving the authorities, to marry his beloved girl. Situation is complicated by the emergence of fathers of young people. One of the fathers is a natural daughter, whom he wished to marry the nephew. When found, that the young man is already married, and it is on it, Formion uses the money before lured from his father, who wanted to thwart the marriage, to buy a slave, another favorite boys. The play combines the fun of confusion in the recognition and complex plot.