Arnold Joseph Toynbee (Toynbee Arnold Joseph)( English historian)
Comments for Arnold Joseph Toynbee (Toynbee Arnold Joseph)
Biography Arnold Joseph Toynbee (Toynbee Arnold Joseph)
Born in London on April 14, 1889. He was educated in Uinchesterskom College and Balliol College, Oxford University. In 1913 he married Rosalind Murray, daughter of Gilbert Murray, the Oxford professor of classics. Their son Philip became a renowned novelist. They divorced in 1946, and in the same year Toynbee married his longtime assistant, Marjorie Veronica Boulter. In 1919-1924 was a professor of Byzantine studies, . Greek, . Literature and History, University of London, . from 1925 until his retirement in 1955 - scientific director of the Royal Institute of International Relations and Research Fellow, University of London,
. In 1920-1946 - editor 'Review of International Affairs'. During the Second World War, Toynbee - Director of Research Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Great Britain. In 1956 became a Knight of the Order of Companions of Honor. Toynbee died in York on Oct. 22, 1975
. Toynbee's numerous publications include scientific monographs, . including the West issue in Greece and Turkey (The Western Question in Greece and Turkey, . 1922), . Greek historical thought (Greek Historical Thought, . 1924), . A Study of History (A Study of History, . 12 vols., . 1934-1961), . as well as several volumes of essays and lectures, . published after, . under the leadership of D. Somervell was released which became a bestseller reduced (in one volume) a description of the first six volumes of research stories,
. The most interesting article Giffordovskih lectures - the historian's approach to religion (An Historian's Approach to Religion, 1956). Of the later works Toynbee note the following: America and the World Revolution (America and the World Revolution, . 1962); between the Niger and Nile (Between Niger and Nile, . 1965); Changing cities (Cities on the Move, . 1970) and Constantine Porphyrogenitus and his era (Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World, . 1973),
. Toynbee followed Oswald Spengler and the Decline of the denial of the traditional concept of the unity of world history, . offering instead a comparative study of cultures, . resemblance to the life cycle - occurs, . development, and decline,
. However, he rejected Spengler's theory of culture as an organism with a life expectancy of 1000 years, and as reasons for their decline called moral degeneration and loss of creative approaches to emerging problems. For comparative tables Toynbee turned out that in Western Europe during the Napoleonic wars and in the Habsburg monarchy in 1526-1918, despite the Thirty Years' War, WWI, etc., has been peaceful. But he Toynbee, . and many of his admirers were inclined to dismiss indications of inaccuracies, . Considering these amendments commonplace platitudes; on their opinion, . mattered only, . more or less explicitly followed from the volumes of 1.6, . namely, that a return to Catholicism in one or another form of it could have halted the decline of Western civilization, . began with the Reformation,
Volumes 7-10, published in 1954 after a 15-year hiatus, will not contain any of the concept, or many other old ideas. Pointing to the 'Annex' to the 6-th to, . that the set of utterances and episodes in the life of Jesus Christ can be found in the pre-Christian folklore of the Hellenistic and that Christianity itself arose from the religious syncretism, . Toynbee rejected the claims of Christianity on the exclusiveness,
. Our civilization, he believed, would die, but she, like Hellenism, served their historic role, if dying, would create a new syncretic religion.
Toynbee's extraordinary erudition is unquestionable, but its concept and methods have been subjected to withering criticism. Popularity Toynbee - is largely a phenomenon of American culture in Britain has more critics than fans. Nevertheless, his ideas about the historical significance of religion and fertility nadmaterialnyh benchmarks, of course, were quite sound, and even his critics acknowledged that he was able to popularize.