William Thomson (Thomson William)( English physicist, one of the founders of thermodynamics.)
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Biography William Thomson (Thomson William)
Born in Belfast (Ireland), June 26, 1824. After graduating from the University of Glasgow, went to Cambridge University, after which the advice of his father went to Paris for an internship in the laboratory of the famous French experimental physicist A. Regnault. In 1846 took the chair of natural science at the University of Glasgow. He headed the department of physics for 53 years, in later years served as president of the University. For example Regnault created at the department laboratory, which was conducted as a training and research.
In terms of Thomson's interests were thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, electromagnetism, the theory of elasticity, heat, mathematics, technology. Thomson, a student published several articles on the application of Fourier series to the various branches of physics. Stazhiruyas in Paris, has developed a method for solving problems of electrostatics, known as method of 'mirror images' (1846). Acquainted with the theorem of Carnot, suggested an absolute thermodynamic scale (1848). In 1851 formulated (independent of R. Clausius) 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Introduced the concept of energy dissipation. Laid the foundations of the theory of electromagnetic waves in 1853 and derived a formula depending on the period of natural oscillations of the contour of its capacity and inductance (formula Thomson). In 1856, opened the third thermodynamic effect - the effect of Thomson (the first two - the appearance of thermo-emf and the Peltier heat release), which consisted in providing a so-called. 'warmth Thomson' when current flows through a wire in the presence of a temperature gradient.
Thomson made a great contribution to the development of practical applications of various fields of science. He was the chief scientific adviser at laying the first transatlantic cable. Constructed a series of accurate electrometric devices: 'cable' galvanometer, and the absolute quadrant electrometers, siphon-timer for the reception of telegraph signals. Suggested the use of multiple-strand wire of copper wire.
Work on laying the transatlantic cable piqued interest Tomsone to navigation. Scientists have created an improved mariner's compass compensation magnetism of the iron hull, invented the echo sounder continuous action, tide gauge (an instrument for recording water levels in the sea or river). Known studies on the Thomson heat, work on the theory of tides, waves spread over the surface, on the theory of vortex motion.
In 1892, Thomson was given the title of Baron. In 1896 he was elected an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. The last years of his life Thomson held at his home in Largs (Scotland). Thomson died in Largs (Scotland) 17 December 1907.