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Trezzini Domenico Andrea

( Architect, one of the founders of the Petrine Baroque.)

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Biography Trezzini Domenico Andrea
(ca. 1670-1734)
Born in the Swiss town of Astana (near Lugano, in Italian-speaking canton of Ticino) ca. 1670 in the impoverished noble family. He studied in Venice. In search of work arrived in Copenhagen. Orders to the Danish royal court has not received, but these parts Russian Ambassador A. Izmailov, invited him to Russia - 'to serve at the police and ward structure' (1703).

In the same year came to the construction site of Russia's new capital through Archangel. His first major construction was a fort Kronshlot (future Kronstadt), successfully withstood the attack of the Swedish squadron (though Kronstadt strengthening this time are not preserved and are known only by engravings). In 1704 renewed the damaged fortifications of Narva. Finally, in 1706 began his main work - the construction of the fortress, which from the earth were to make a stone. By 1718 the fortress as such - with massive squat walls, . bastions and Peter's Gate (decorated with relief attributes of military valor and allegorical compositions overthrow of Simon the sorcerer St. Peter by the sculptor K. Osnera) - was in large part already constructed,
. In 1712-1733 it has risen above the Peter and Paul Cathedral - nave basilica with a graceful bell tower, crowned by a grand gilded spire (in general, all the bell tower with a spire height of 112 m by 32 m longer 'Ivan the Great' in the Moscow Kremlin). This cathedral was the most ambitious of the many foreign stylistically monuments of Peter's time, . that would be deployed as an Orthodox church building face to the West, . converts it to him not only the external decoration (as in 'Moscow' or 'Naryshinsky' Baroque), . but the whole architecture of, . labeled here Ornamental stingy, . but powerful rhythm of pilasters and volute,
.

'Office of Urban Affairs', created to oversee the construction of the fortress, soon became the headquarters of the whole architecture of the new capital (Trezzini same right-hand man head of the Office of William A. Senyavin). Buildings and entire complexes by the Swiss masters were erected at key locations in St. Petersburg. Among them are preserved: The Summer Palace in the Summer Garden (1710-1714), . Annunciation Church with Dukhovskoi housing at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery (1717-1722), . building 12 boards on the arrow Vasilevsky Island (now University, 1722-1734), . recently released its special length (front width of 383 m),
. 've Made a completely new architecture for Russia parameters of height and length, Trezzini at the same time subtly differentiated style, based on the appointment of the building. If his church images, . more 'southern' in spirit, . stressed stately and ambitious, . then the images of the secular (the Summer Palace and 12 boards), . opposite, . subject, . primarily, . principle of practical convenience and compactness, . of northern, . Dutch Baroque,
. Continued work on the personal instructions of Peter, . architect has also made a decisive contribution to the regular planning of the city on the Neva River in general (especially on Vasilevsky Island) and was 'exemplary' (standard) housing projects to accommodate the different segments of the population ( 'famous', . 'rich' and 'despicable'),


. Home Trezzini functioned as a home school: a number of his aides-'gezeley 'was released a number of prominent architects, . including architects Pietro Antonio Trezzini (son of Domenico; r.1710 - the year of death unknown), . built in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, . and M. Zemtsov,
.

Trezzini died in St. Petersburg on February 19 (2 March) 1734.


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