Francis Hutcheson (Hutcheson Francis)( Scots-Irish educator and philosopher)
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Biography Francis Hutcheson (Hutcheson Francis)
Born in Drumalige (Northern Ireland), August 8, 1694 in the family elders of the Presbyterian. He was educated at the University of Glasgow in 1710-1716. In 1719-1729 he taught at he founded a private academy in Dublin. In 1729 Hutcheson took the chair of moral philosophy at Glasgow University, where he taught until the end of life. At this late period, devoted mainly to give lectures at the university, he aroused keen interest to students of Scottish philosophy, he is considered the initiator of a so-called. 'Scottish Enlightenment'.
Although Hutcheson was one of the first philosophers of modern times, who wrote works on aesthetics (he belongs to the notion of internal sense, the ability to directly feel the beauty and harmony), he is known primarily ethical writings. According to Hutcheson, . man is by nature prone to moral actions, virtue is to promote the welfare of others; incentive to commit a virtuous deeds is their beauty, . rather than emanating from them the benefits, possessing an innate moral sense, . people can judge the goodness or wickedness of himself and other people,
As a representative of the school of moral feelings Hutcheson was closely associated with Shaftesbury and Dzh.Batlerom. It differed from the Butler that did not consider selfishness itself virtuous. In Shaftesbury, whose student he was and the idea of being distributed in Scotland, Hutcheson borrowed the notion of a moral sense (which Shaftesbury himself almost never used), placing him at the center of an elaborate ethical system. Moral sense is actually a birth and sent for approval of those actions that contribute to the welfare of human beings. Moral sense of something akin to other feelings, but differs from them in that its result is a moral installation, approval or disapproval of this or any other actions.
Hutcheson's views have spread in Britain, France and Germany. He anticipated the utilitarian doctrine, first formulated (1725) well-known principle of 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number' (cm. also Plato State, . IV, . 420), . that almost led to his persecution by the Scottish disciplinarian (he was accused of provovedi 'false and dangerous doctrine that, . that the criterion of moral righteousness is fostering happiness of other people '),
. Hutcheson was a student of Adam Smith, Hutcheson had an impact on DA Hume, T. Reid, T. Brown, as well as Thomas Jefferson and Dzh.Adamsa
. Among the most important of his works - Study on the origin of ideas of beauty and virtue (An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, . 1725), An Essay on the nature and effect of the passions and inclinations, with examples of moral feelings (Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections with Illustrations upon the Moral Sense, . 1728); system of moral philosophy (System of Moral Philosophy, . publ,
. posthumously in 1755). Hutcheson died in Glasgow in 1746.