James Watt (Watt James)( Scottish engineer and inventor.)
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Biography James Watt (Watt James)
Born January 19, 1736 in Greenock, near Glasgow. To study for a master of metalwork father sent Watt in London. Having mastered one year a seven-year program, Watt returned to Scotland and obtained a place in the mechanics of the University of Glasgow. It met with talented physicists - Dzh.Blekom and Dzh.Robinsonom.
Black and Robinson engaged in determining the heat of vaporization, and Watt was involved in ensuring the technical side of the experiments. Among the steam engines of that time were 'fire engine' of the French inventor D. Papin, . combined in one device for the vaporization of the boiler and the working cylinder; steam vodopodemnik military engineer T. Severi, . in which the working cylinder was separated from the boiler and for the rapid condensation of steam pouring from the outside cold water, and finally - paroatmosfernaya T. Newcomen Engine,
. The latter differed from the previous machine so, . 1) that the driving force behind it was the atmospheric pressure, . and dilution was achieved by vapor condensation, 2) in the cylinder is a piston, . which is a working progress under the influence of steam 3) vacuum is achieved as a result of condensation of steam inside the cylinder during injection-cold water,
Debugging university model steam engine Newcomen, Watt came to the conclusion that to reduce the steam flow to make the process of condensation outside the cylinder. Obtained a patent for an invention in 1769 and with financial support from Dr. Rebecca, founder of the first steel plant in Scotland, Watt built his first car. The model failed, and cooperation with Rebeca aborts.
Despite the lack of funds, Watt has continued to work on improving the steam engine. His works are interested M. Bolton, an engineer and a wealthy industrialist, owner of metalworking factory in the village of Soho, near Birmingham. In 1775 Watt and Bolton signed a partnership agreement. In 1781, Watt received a patent for the invention of the second model of his car. Among the innovations, . made in it and in subsequent models, . were: 1) cylinder double acting - steam was fed alternately on opposite sides of the piston, . with the exhaust steam entering the condenser, 2) flame shirt, . surrounding working cylinder to reduce heat loss, . and valve, and 3) the conversion of reciprocating piston motion into rotary motion of the shaft through the first connecting rod-crank mechanism, . and then with the help of gear transmission, . which became a prototype of a planetary gear, 4) the centrifugal regulator to maintain the constancy of the speed of the shaft and flywheel to reduce the unevenness of rotation,
. In 1785 Watt patented the invention of a new furnace kotla.Firma 'Bolton and Watt' experienced all the vicissitudes of life, from the fall in demand for its products to protect its inventors' rights in the courts. However, since 1783 the firm went to the hill. Versatile double-acting steam engine with a continuous rotation (Watt's steam engine) has been widely distributed and played a significant role in the transition to machine production. Watt, died Aug. 25, 1819 in Hitfilde near Birmingham.