Michael Faraday (Faraday Michael)( English physicist.)
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Biography Michael Faraday (Faraday Michael)
Born September 22, 1791 in the outskirts of London in a blacksmith. Since 12 years he worked as newsboy, then a student in the bookbinding. To educate ourselves, read books on chemistry and electricity. In 1813 one customer gave Faraday invitations to lectures G. Davy at the Royal Institute, which played a decisive role in the fate of the Faraday. Thanks to Davie, he was an assistant position at the Royal Association.
In 1813-1815, traveling together with Davy Europe, Faraday Laboratory, visited a number of countries. Davey helped in chemical experiments, he began independent research on chemistry. Carried liquefaction of gases, benzene was. In 1821, first observed the rotation of the magnet around a conductor and the conductor around a magnet, created the first model of the electric. During the next 10 years, had been investigating the relationship between electric and magnetic phenomena, and in 1831 discovered electromagnetic induction, which lies at the basis of all electric AC and DC.
In 1824 Faraday was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1825 became director of laboratories at the Royal Association. Since 1833 was Fullerovskim professor of chemistry at the Royal Institute, left that post in 1862. Widely known public lectures, Faraday. Using a large experimental material, Faraday proved the identity of the then known 'types' of electricity: 'animal', 'magnetic', thermoelectric, galvanic electricity, etc.. The desire to identify the nature of electricity led him to experiment on the passage of current through solutions of acids, salts and alkalis. The result of research was the discovery in 1833 of the laws of electrolysis (Faraday's law). In 1845 Faraday discovered the phenomenon of rotation of the plane of polarization of light in a magnetic field (Faraday effect). In the same year opened the diamagnetism in 1847 - the paramagnetism. He has introduced a number of concepts - the mobility of (1827), the cathode, anode, ions, electrolysis, electrodes (1834) invented a voltmeter (1833). In the 1830's proposed the concept of the field, in 1845 coined the term 'magnetic field', and in 1852 formulated the concept of the field.
Major work on electricity and magnetism Faraday represented the Royal Society as a series of reports entitled Experimental Researches in Electricity (Experimental Researches in Electricity). In Research, Faraday published a chemical manipulations (Chemical Manipulation, 1827). Widely known for his book History of candles (A Course of Six Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle, 1861).
Faraday died at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.