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Enrico Fermi (Fermi Enrico)

( Italian physicist.)

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Biography Enrico Fermi (Fermi Enrico)
(1901-1954)
In 1938 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of artificial radioactivity and the creation of the theory of neutron slowing. Born September 29, 1901 in Rome. In 1922 he graduated from both the University of Pisa and Pisa Ecole Normale SupцLrieure. In 1923 he worked at Gottingen University in M. Born, in 1924 - at Leiden University in P. Ehrenfest, taught in Rome and the University of Florence, in 1926 became professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Rome. In 1938 he emigrated to the U.S.. In 1939-1942 - professor at Columbia University, 1942-1945 - Professor, University of Chicago, since 1946 - Professor, Institute for Nuclear Research in Chicago. In 1944-1945 headed the department of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Fermi Research related to nuclear physics, statistical mechanics, high energy physics, astrophysics. In 1926 was published his work on the statistical mechanics of particles obeying the Pauli principle (particles with half-integer spin). She served as the foundation of a so-called. Statistics Fermi - Dirac, which explains the behavior of electrons in solids (conductivity, electron emission, thermoelectric effects, etc.), as well as many phenomena in different areas of physics - from nuclear physics to astrophysics. In 1933-1934 created a quantitative theory of Fermi b-decay. In 1934 opened the artificial radioactive elements irradiated with neutrons, expressed the idea of obtaining such a way of transuranic elements. In 1936 opened the absorption of neutrons. All these studies laid the foundation for the development of neutron physics.

In 1939, regardless of F.Zholio Curie, Fermi and L. Szilard showed experimentally that when bombarded uranium nuclei with slow neutrons emitted by new neutrons, and postulated the existence of a nuclear chain reaction. In 1941, the first to detect neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission. After experiments on slow neutrons in graphite, has developed a method for determining the critical dimensions of the reaction medium. Oversaw the creation of the first nuclear reactor. December 2, 1942 at the reactor was started self-sustaining chain reaction.

Later works include the scientist to high-energy physics. In 1949 Fermi developed a theory of the origin of cosmic rays, together with C. Yang proposed a composite model of elementary particles, in which as the fundamental particles appear nucleon and antinucleon (model Fermi - Yang).

In honor of the Fermi named the 100-th element in the Periodic Table - Farm. In the United States established an award of his name, the name assigned to the Chicago Fermi Institute for Nuclear Research.

Fermi died in Chicago on Nov. 28, 1954.


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