Johann Gottlieb Fichte (Fichte Johann Gottlieb)( The German philosopher, founder of 'absolute idealism'.)
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Biography Johann Gottlieb Fichte (Fichte Johann Gottlieb)
Born in the village Rammenau (Oberlauzits, Saxony) May 19, 1762 to a peasant family. Thanks occasion gained patron in the person of Baron von Miltitsa. He studied at Jena (1780) and Leipzig (1781-1784), Universities in the next ten years, moved from place to place, earning a living lessons.
In 1790 began to intensively study the works and. Kant, that determined the whole course of his philosophical works. Fichte, Kant received approval by submitting an essay written for the month of experience every kind of criticism of the testimony (Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung). Through this work, published without indicating the author in 1792 and initially attributed most of Kant, Fichte gained a reputation as a philosopher and in 1793 he was invited for the post of Professor of Philosophy University of Jena, which took the spring of 1794.
Fichte taught at Jena five years, but in 1799 was forced to resign from the university, accused of 'atheism' for the assertion that God - not personal being, but a moral world order. However, probably, local activists of the church did not like his lectures he arranged on Sundays. Later he lived in Berlin (until 1806), except for one semester, when he was a professor at Erlangen University (1805). When because of the defeat in the war with Napoleon, the Prussian government was forced to move to KцTnigsberg (1806), Fichte followed him and taught at the University of KцTnigsberg until 1807. In 1810 he was appointed the first rector of the new University of Berlin and held that post until 1812. Another reason for gratitude was a series of lectures in Berlin (1807-1808) shortly after the humiliating defeat of Jena - Speeches to the German Nation (Reden an die deutsche Nation, . 1808), . which Fichte urged the German people to fight against the French invaders,
. When in 1813 the liberation war, he was recognized as one of the intellectual leaders of the German resistance to Napoleon's regime. His wife, volunteered for service as a nurse, contracted typhoid fever, which soon recovered, but also transmit the infection to her husband. Fichte died in Berlin on January 27, 1814
. Among the most famous works of Fichte should also be mentioned: The appointment of a scientist (Einige Vorlesungen ber die Bestimmung des Gelehrten, . 1794), The Destiny of Man (Die Bestimmung des Menschen, . 1800); Clear, . the sun, . message to the general public about the true essence of modern philosophy,
. Attempt to force the reader to understand (Sonnerklare Bericht an das grssere Publikum ber das eigentliche Wesen der neuesten Philosophie. Ein Versuch, die Leser zum Verstehen zu zwingen, 1801); The main features of the modern era (Die Grundzge des gegenwrtigen Zeitalters, 1806).
The base of Fichte's theory - a philosophical doctrine called them 'naukoucheniem'. His main work - the basis of general naukoucheniya (Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaftslehre), first published in 1794 on the Rights of the manuscript was subjected to corrections nine times during the life of the philosopher. Huge influence on Fichte had 'ethical activism' Rousseau and Kant, the recognition of the supreme role of volitional start. For Fichte's fundamental philosophy is taken for granted ethical ( 'practical') the creative activity of personality, or, in his terminology, 'Ich' (I, ego). Perhaps, . choice of the term was not too good, . since given rise to some commentators take it to the system or to a variety of solipsism, . or (according Dzh.Santayana) to the rise of 'Bright fame and a strong self-interest' to the philosophical principle,
. However, the understanding of ego Fichte has little in common with the traditional views as to the identity I, and with ordinary selfishness, assigned him Santayanoy. Its source is more likely a representation of the autonomous status of morality in the natural world.
Every man, according to Fichte, feels living in two kingdoms, his mind includes what is he (I), and the fact that he is not (Nicht-Ich, not-I). To know not-I, a person must first know yourself. The ultimate reality, thus, serves the self, on which depends the rest. But this self is far from classic 'soul'. With Descartes and Kant, Fichte believed that the initial datum is not a fact (Thatsache, cause-thing), it is - an activity (Thathandlung, cause-effect), the activity of consciousness. But what is the object of consciousness? This is not a pre-existing, external, natural world, as we tend to naively believe, but rather we are dealing with a consciousness of themselves. According to Kant, 'sensations without concepts are blind', the mind makes simple series of external events in the causation. Specular reflection of being in the mind (view of naive realism) is inexplicable, according to Fichte, if you do it being, in turn, the basis for the explanation of consciousness. Consequently, the existence should depend on consciousness, not vice versa. 'Naukouchenie' must show that all consciousness directed to sites on the 'other', is rooted in the original relation of consciousness to itself. Thus, the experience is a product of consciousness, not consciousness - a product of experience.
The main motive of Fichte, however, is not understanding the natural world, but the comprehension of morality. There is no absolute nature, which would have towered over the will, or freedom and rationality, these fundamental givens of consciousness would have been impossible. 'The sense of freedom rationally confirmed the reality of its object'. I should expand to non-self, to become a reality. Thus arises the natural world and objects, through which then breaks a fundamental spiritual power. However, the external world is not an illusion, the construction of desires, on the contrary, this is a very real world, usually resisted his attempts to rationalize and make 'moral'. Consciousness knows only itself and its activities, but his work, so to speak, 'out of control'. History, which Fichte calls "divine pedagogy ', arises from the split between self and not-I, to overcome the need for using the freedoms nature - with the help of morality.
Kant, for reasons that probably also lay in the sphere of morality, yet he could skillfully juggles concepts to keep the scope of actual and reasonable in the same system. He still remained relatively calm thinker of the Enlightenment, called his system 'critical idealism', respectively, indicating the role of the external world and consciousness. However, Fichte, who watched the collapse of the ideals of the French Revolution, could no longer tolerate the irrational reality. Reasonable and moral, he had circulated to all things, becoming the founder of 'absolute idealism'. The controversial thing-in-itself, Kant, Fichte dissolved in a purely ideal nature.
Fichte, when something is going to be a Protestant pastor, far removed from ideas of Lutheranism. The doctrine of apostasy from grace had such a strong influence on his philosophy that it may even give rise to exaggerated. It is known that he regarded history as essentially secular redemption of God: the continual creation of the world, who had once been the prerogative of God, now - the work of man.
History, as the exercise of freedom, there is a progressive elimination of the natural world in the name of morality. Empirical natural state in which the right force and injustice, giving way to rational moral state, dominated by free will and equality. People focus only moral consciousness, a departure from the tyranny reigning in the world of nature. All history is nothing but an attempt to establish dominance over mankind natural necessity.
Entire social philosophy of Fichte permeated collectivist motives. In his early work, closed trading state (Der geschlossene Handelsstaat, . 1800) he defends the protectionist principles, . developing state-socialist arguments, in the posthumously published fragments in 1813 Fichte argues, . that only the state has the right to own land,
In 20 of. political theories Fichte sometimes categorized as an anticipation of nationalism and fascism. However, be aware that his 'nationalist' speeches were heard during the fight against foreign invaders and on behalf of the nation, which did not exist. In one of his first works, . To correct the judgments of the public about the French Revolution (Beitrag zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums ber die franzsische Revolution, . 1793), . Fichte justify revolution, . arguing, . that freedom is inextricably linked to the very existence of man as a rational creature,
. Throughout his life he remained a passionate defender of the ideals of the French Revolution.